The COLORFUL ORIGINAL PIECE is. HAND SIGNED with pencil I. RYBACK by the artist , The renowned JEWISH – RUSSIAN AVANT GARDE artist ISSACHAR BER RYBACK. The COLORFUL lithograph belongs to RYBACK lithographs 1932 cycle of MON VILLAGE (My Village or My Stetl) , That cycle consisted of 250 copies , However this copy is numbered XIV/XXV (14/25). Once examining each of the 16 oieces of this cycle , One can easily determine that this one , Being a dense profusion of EVENTS, FIGURES, MOVEMENT, COLORS is no doubt one of the MOST BEAUTIFUL of them all. Various layers of EVENTS with numerous Jewish INDIVIDUALS , FACES and EXPRESSIONS. The sheet size is around 20 x 27. The actual lithograph size is around 18 x 25. RYBACK has signed with pencil Y. RYBACK at bottom right. Very thick and heavy lithographic paper. (Please look at scan for actual AS IS images). Will be sent in a special protective rigid sealed tube. This STONE LITHOGRAPH is an ORIGINAL ca 1932 hand signed lithograph , NOT a reproduction or a reprint , It holds a life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY. Will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. Estimated Int’l duration around 14 days. Issachar Ber Ryback a painter, a graphic, a sculptor, a scene painter, and an art critic. He was born on February 2, 1897 in Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovograd, Ukraine). Though his father originated from a high-born Chassid family, he was a follower of Haskala and an admirer of the Russian culture, and tried to foster love of this culture in his children. Nevertheless, he sent his son to the “heder”, though rather late, only at the age of 10, because due to his delayed development and unhealthiness Ryback lacked speech habits nearly till he was nine. He studied in the “heder” for slightly more than a year, dedicating most of his time to the evening drawing classes for workers attached to the local factory, which he attended in secret. At the age of 11 he entered the Yelisavetgrad courses for scene painters, and having completed the course, was working since 1909 in an artel (co-operative unit) that dealt with interior paintings of public and church buildings. In 1911, Ryback was admitted to the Kiev School of Arts, Faculty of Painting, and graduated in 1916. At that period he became a member of the non-formal group created by the school Jewish painters that included, in particular, Boris Aronson, Alexander Tyshler, Solomon Nikritin, Mark Epstein, and Isaac Rabinovich, who later became the well-known artists. They all were consolidated by the idea of keen national self-identity and interest to various modernistic trends in art. Particular features of their world outlook were influenced, on the one hand, by the ideology of the so-called Kiev Group of Yiddish men of letters: David Bergelson, Nachman Mayzil, Yehezkiel Dobrushin, David Hofstein, etc. Who were the theoreticians and the creators of the “modern” Jewish culture and literature. On the other hand, Ryback, similarly to the other, close-spirited young Jewish painters, established close links with Alexander Bogomazov and Alexandra Exter, who lived then in Kiev and were among the leading painters of the Russian avant-garde. In 1915, at the Kiev Spring Exhibition, he for the first time presented his paintings, most of them being inspired by Jewish topics but in a modernistic style. In summer 1916, Ryback, together with El Lisitzky, was commissioned by the Jewish Historical and Ethnographic Society to travel all over Ukrainian and Byelorussian small towns (stetln) and copy the paintings in wooden synagogues and carved gravestones on the Jewish cemeteries. This trip awoke Ryback’s interest in Jewish folk art and from that time on, he started regular collection and copying of the art samples. In spring 1917, Ryback participated in the Moscow Exhibition of Jewish painters and sculptors, and the critics assessed him as “one of the most brilliant and ingenious artists”. The same year, Ryback participated in the launching of the Kiev Branch of the Jewish Society for the Fine Art Encouragement. In spring 1918, he became a founder of the Culture League Artistic Division. It was the organization established at that period in Ukraine for the development of new Jewish culture in Yiddish language. Besides, he prepared scenery sketches and scale model for the pioneering production of the Culture League Theater Studio that have foreseen some of the Constructivist set design discoveries. In summer 1919, in the Baginen, the Kiev Yiddish-language magazine, in collaboration with Boris Aronson, Ryback published The Ways of Jewish Painting paper, which served as a peculiar manifesto of Jewish avant-garde art. The paper authors were of opinion that the art should represent the synthesis of the Jewish artistic tradition and the achievements of the European radical modernism. In conformity with the program stated, Ryback himself painted a number of works where Jewish symbols and folk art motifs were intertwined with the avant-garde techniques of image plotting. At the same period, he created a series of works dedicated to the Jewish pogroms in Ukraine in one of such pogroms his father was murdered. In spring 1920, Ryback was one of the organizers and participants of the exhibition held by the Culture League Artistic Division in Kiev. Soon after the exhibition closing, in April, he relocated to Moscow, where he was living for about a year. Within that period he participated in the activities of the Circle of Jewish Writers and Painters, and collaborated with the Moscow Jewish Chamber Theater. There he designed a couple of books in Yiddish and worked at the Lithuanian Culture League institutions. In October he arrived in Berlin and began his active participation in the international and Jewish cultural life. In 1922, together with Yankel Adler and Henryck Berlevi, Ryback (as the representative of the Eastern European Jewish painters) participated in the preparation and conduct of the congress of the Union of Progressive International Artists (Dusseldorf, May 29-31, 1922). Jointly with other Jewish painters such as Nathan Altman and Joseph Chaikov, Ryback collaborated with Jewish writers in Berlin and participated in their cultural events. The same year he made artistic design of three books by Miriam Margolin Fairy Tales for Small Children in Yiddish. In parallel, Ryback of that period was engaged in artistic criticism, publishing reviews of various exhibitions and papers on painters in German and Jewish newspapers. He also cooperated with German Jewish publishing houses and performed orders for artistic works from certain Jewish organizations, specifically ORT. In 1923, the Shvelln, a Berlin Jewish Publishing House, published Ryback’s graphical album named Stetl. A year after, his Jewish Types of Ukraine lithographic album saw the light. These two graphic series were based on Ryback’s impressions and recollections of his 1916 trip along the Ukrainian and Byelorussian stetln. From December 1923 until January 1924 he had his solo exhibition in Berlin, which revealed Ryback’s achievements as the original interpreter of Cubism. In December 1924 he came back to Moscow as he was invited by the Jewish Studio of the Byelorussian Theater to make stage design of a theater play. Also, in early 1925 Ryback made stage design of the In bren and Purimspiel plays at the Ukrainian State Jewish theater of Kharkov. Soon after that, he undertook a prolonged trip along the Jewish kolkhozes of Ukraine and Crimea. The trip resulted in the At the Jewish Fields of Ukraine album, which was published in 1926 in Paris where Ryback finally relocated in early 1926. Immediately, he began to play an outstanding role in the artistic life of the French capital, which was evidenced by his two one-man exhibitions in the Galerie aux Quatre Chemins (1928) and in the Galerie LArt Contemporain (1929). His painting style underwent changes in that period: Ryback passed from the Cubist stylistics to the Expressionist colorist painting a la cole de Paris. He won recognition beyond the French borders as well. In 1930 his one-man show took place in the Hague, in 1931, in Rotterdam, in 1932, in Brussels and Antwerp. In 1932, a folder of etchings based on his Shadows of the Past drawings was published in Paris and its characters showed Ryback’s permanent adherence to the Jewish theme. It was also witnessed by his ceramic sculptures created in his last years of life. In February 1935, at the invitation of the Cambridge University Artistic Society, Ryback went to England to the opening of his exhibition. On his way to Cambridge he stopped in London, where a small exhibition of Ryback’s works was open for the representatives of local Jewish public and culture at the house of Leah L. Gildesheim, a Jewish public figure. In April 1935, the exposition of his works was opened in Cambridge and was highly praised by the British art critics. Due to dramatic worsening of his severe chronic disease he was forced to go to the hospital, where he spent the last months of his life. In fact, the dying painter’s friends had enough time to hold the exhibition of his works in a Paris gallery. Ryback took part in the exhibition preparation even saying in hospital, but he was unable to appear at the opening. Soon after the exhibition closed, Ryback passed away, on December 22, 1935. In 1926 he moved to Paris, dying there on the eve of an important retrospective exhibition of his work organized by Wildenstein. Much of his collection was donated for the establishment of the Ryback Museum of Bat Yam in Israel. Ryback was an important member of the Russian Jewish, modernist movement that included Lissitsky, Altman, Aronson and Chagall, all of whom were seeking to revitalize Jewish art during a period which saw the cultural efflorescence of Yiddish literature, music, theater, and art. Ryback was born in the Ukraine and attended the Kiev Art Institute. He worked with El Lissitzky on an ethnographic mission to record the life and artifacts of Jews in small Russian towns. He was a member of avant-garde movements in Russia and later in Germany. Ryback experimented with a modified form of Cubism, using structures to express emotions while pursuing his interest in folklore S. Russian Jewish Artists, New York, 1995, p. Born in 1897 in Yelizavetgrad (Ukraine), Ryback studied at the Kiev Academy in Moscow from 1911 1916. He initially experimented with Cubism and then began painting Jewish subject matter in the 1920s when critics and collectors began to appreciate his analytic Cubism and recognize his importance in the Russian vanguard movement. In 1921 he moved to Berlin, where he participated in the Der Sturm group. He was invited back to Moscow in 1925 to design costumes for the Moscow Theatre, before moving to Paris in 1926. There he adopted a new style of Realism, portraying Russian Jewish shtetl life, bringing out the forceful, distinctive character of his Yiddish-speaking subjects without resorting to sentimentalism. Ryback was an important member of the Russian Jewish, modernist movement that included Lissitsky, Altman, Aronson and Chagall. Edouard Roditi said of him, Ryback may be generally recognized as an artist whose genius bears comparison only with that of Chagall. He died suddenly in Paris in 1935, a few days after the opening of a retrospective exhibition of his work organized by the Wildenstein Gallery. Graphic artist, painter, stage designer and art critic. In 1916, according to the Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Societys assignment, Ryback and El Lissitzky visited a number of towns in Ukraine and Belorus, where they copied the murals in the wooden synagogues and the carved tombstones on Jewish cemeteries. In 1917 Ryback took part in the Exhibition of Jewish Painters and Sculptors in Moscow. Reviewers wrote that he was one of the most original and colorful painters. In Kyiv, Ryback helped organizing Kyiv branch of the Jewish Society for Furthering of Arts (1917), of the Kultur-Lige Art Section (1918) and of the 1st Jewish Art Exhibition. In 1919 Ryback and Boris Aronson published the programmatic essay Paths of Jewish Painting. In 1920 Ryback after the moved to Moscow, where he lived for about a year. In 1921 Ryback moved to Berlin, where he became a member of the November Group and published two albums of graphic works, Shtettl (1923) and Jewish Types of Ukraine (1924). After his return to the USSR in 1924, he created decorations for the Ukrainian State Jewish Theater in Kharkiv and undertook a long journey through Jewish kolkhozes of Ukraine and Crimea, resulting in an album titled In the Jewish Fields of Ukraine, published in 1926 in Paris. In the beginning of same year Ryback moved to Paris and soon began to play a noticeable role in the artistic life of the French capital. In the late 1920s early 1930s he had a number of personal exhibitions in various Parisian galleries. In 1932 a folio of prints of his drawings entitled Shadows of the Past were published. Various themes of this published demonstrated Ryback’s unrelenting interest towards Jewish topics. This is confirmed by the ceramic sculptures which Ryback created in the last years of his life. The items here represent only a portion of Yale’s holdings in Yiddish literature. The Beinecke, in collaboration with the Yale University library Judaica Collection, continues to digitize and make Yiddish books available online. With the Russian Revolution of 1917, prohibitions on Yiddish printing imposed by the Czarist regime were lifted. Thus, the early post-revolutionary period saw a major flourishing of Yiddish books and journals. The new freedoms also enabled the development of a new and radically modern art by the Russian avant-garde. Artists such as Mark Chagall, Joseph Chaikov, Issachar Ber Ryback, El (Eliezer) Lisitzsky and others found in the freewheeling artistic climate of those years an opportunity Jews had never enjoyed before in Russia: an opportunity to express themselves as both Modernists and as Jews. Their art often focused on the small towns of Russia and Ukraine where most of them had originated. Their depiction of that milieu, however, was new and different. Jewish art in the early post-revolutionary years emerged with the creation of a secular, socialist culture and was especially cultivated by the Kultur-Lige, the Jewish social and cultural organizations of the 1920s and 1930s. One of the founders of the first Kultur-Lige in Kiev in 1918 was Joseph Chaikov, a painter and sculptor whose books are represented in the Beineckes collection. The Kultur-Lige supported education for children and adults in Jewish literature, the theater and the arts. The organization sponsored art exhibitions and art classes and also published books written by the Yiddish languages most accomplished authors and poets and illustrated by artists who in time became trail blazers in modernist circles. This brief flowering of Yiddish secular culture in Russia came to an end in the 1920s. As the power of the Soviet state grew under Stalin, official culture became hostile to the experimental art that the revolution had at first facilitated and even encouraged. Many artists left for Berlin, Paris and other intellectual centers. Those that remained, like El Lisitzky, ceased creating art with Jewish themes and focused their work on furthering the aims of Communism. Tragically, many of them perished in Stalins murderous purges. The Artists Eliezer Lisitzky (18901941), better known as El Lisitzky, was a Russian Jewish artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer, and architect. He was one of the most important figures of the Russian avant-garde, helping develop Suprematism with his friend and mentor, Kazimir Malevich. He began his career illustrating Yiddish children’s books in an effort to promote Jewish culture. In 1921, he became the Russian cultural ambassador in Weimar Germany, working with and influencing important figures of the Bauhaus movement. He brought significant innovation and change to the fields of typography, exhibition design, photomontage, and book design, producing critically respected works and winning international acclaim. However, as he grew more involved with creating art work for the Soviet state, he ceased creating art with Jewish themes. Among the best known Yiddish books illustrated by the artist is Sikhes Hulin by the writer and poet Moshe Broderzon and Yingel Tsingle Khvat, a childrens book of poetry by Mani Leyb. Both works have been completely digitized and can be found here. Born in Kiev, Chaikov studied in Paris from 1910 to 1913. Returning to Russia in 1914, he became active in Jewish art circles and in 1918 was one of the founders of the Kultur-Lige in Kiev. Though primarily known as a sculptor, in his early career, he also illustrated Yiddish books, many of them childrens books. In 1921 his Yiddish book, Skulptur was published. In it, the artist formulated an avant-garde approach to sculpture and its place in a new Jewish art. It too is in the Beinecke collection. Another of the great artists from this remarkable period in Yiddish cultural history is Issachar Ber Ryback. Together with Lisistzky, he traveled as a young man in the Russian countryside studying Jewish folk life and art. Their findings made a deep impression on both men as artists and as Jews and folk art remained an abiding influence on their work. One of Rybacks better known works is Shtetl, Mayn Khoyever heym; a gedenknish (Shtetl, My destroyed home; A Remembrance), Berlin, 1922. In this book, also in the Beinecke collection, the artist depicts scenes of Jewish life in his shtetl (village) in Ukraine before it was destroyed in the pogroms which followed the end of World War I. Indeed, Shtetl is an elegy to that world. David Hofsteins book of poems, Troyer (Tears), illustrated by Mark Chagall also mourns the victims of the pogroms. It was published by the Kultur-Lige in Kiev in 1922. Chagalls art in this book is stark and minimalist in keeping with the grim subject of the poetry. Chagall was a leading force in the new emerging Yiddish secular art and many of the young modernist artists of the time came to study and paint with him in Vitebsk, his hometown. Lisistzky and Ryback were among them. Chagall, however, parted ways with them when their artistic styles and goals diverged. Chagall moved to Moscow in 1920 where he became involved with the newly created and innovative Moscow Yiddish Theater. Cite as: General Modern Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University KULTUR LIGE : the Kultur Lige was at the heart of the Jewish cultural renaissance in Kiev, providing education and culture to the Jewish population. It had its own press, which published teaching material, literary and historical studies, literary journals, and children’s books such as Troyer. The artists involved included Lissitzky, Ryback, Chagall, and Tchaikov, to name only a few. LISSITZKY : Architect, painter, graphic artist, photographer, designer and art theoretician. His first exhibition was in 1912. In 1919 he moved to Vitsyebsk, where he became a supporter of Kazimir Malevichs suprematism, joined the UNOVIS group (Russian abbreviation for The Champions of the New Art) and headed the faculty of architecture at the Peoples Art School. From 1921 to 1925 he lived in Berlin, where he establishes contacts with Avant-Gard groups and published his books About two squares (1922), The Artisms (1922, together with Hans Arp), among others. In 1928 the artist was appointed the chief architect of the Central Park of Culture and Repose in Moscow. Lissitzky designed numerous Soviet displays and pavillons at international exhibitions. He took part in many exhibitions in the USSR and beyond its boarders. Lissitzky died in Moscow. ALTMAN : Painter, book illustrator and stage designer. The Paris period in the painters activity is characterized by noticeable influences of Cubism and Modernism. His first exposition was in 1906. In 1912 Altman moved to Saint Petersburg. In 1915 he became one of the founders of the Jewish Society for the Furthering of the Arts and took part in its exhibitions. From 1922 to 1924 he was a member of the Art Section of Moscow Kultur-Lige. Up to his return to the USSR, he worked as a designer and a book illustrator (he illustrated Gogols and Scholem Aleichems stories, among others). Altman died in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). RYBACK : Graphic artist, painter, stage designer and art critic. ARONSON : Sculptor, graphic artist, pedagogue, art theoretician. Born in Kyiv, Chaikov studied in Paris from 1910 to 1913 under N. Aronson, as well as at the School of Decorative Arts and the School of Liberal Arts. The artist’s first exhibition was in 1912. In the same year Chaikov and a group of young artists founded the Mahmadim association. They also published a journal under the same title. In 1913 the artist took part in the Autumn salon in Paris. The artist was an active member of Jewish artistically organizations and associations. In 1918 he became one of the founders of the Kultur-Lige Art Section in Kyiv. He illustrated Yiddish books, as well as taught classes on sculpture. In 1921 his Yiddish book, Sculptore, was published, in which the artist formulated an Avant-Guard approach to sculpture and its place in a system of the new Jewish art. In 1925 Chaikov became a member of the Association of Soviet Sculptors (ORS) in Moscow, as well as a member of the artists’ association Four arts. From 1923 to 1930 he teaches sculpture at Higher Art and Technical Studios / Higher Art and Technical Institute. CHAIKOV : Sculptor, graphic artist, pedagogue, art theoretician. The exhibition “Kultur-Lige: Artistic Avant-Garde of 1910-s – 1920s” occured on December 20, 2007 – January 25, 2008 in the National Museum of Art of Ukraine. It was dedicated to the activity of artistic section of enlightenment organization Kultur-Lige (Cultural-League), which was active on the territory of Ukraine in the first half of 20-s beginning of 30-s of XX century. In the exposition works of Mark Chagall, Alexander Tyshler, Mark Epstein, Elieser Lisitski, Josef Chaikov, Abraham Manevich, Issakhar-Ber Rybak, Boris Aronson, Nathan Altman, Solomon Nikritin and Sarah Shor were represented. 1910- 1920 is the period of Jewish life transformation. New Jewish culture was formed through dramatic events. Studying and trying to understand a phenomenon of Jewish life and Jewish culture development in Kyiv and Ukraine and also Kultur-Lige activities in the context of the epoch are of a crucial importance. It is necessary for understanding of Jewish history and culture of entire Eastern Europe. In 1926 he moved to Paris, where he worked until he died on the eve of an important retrospective exhibition of his work organized by Wildenstein. Ryback was an member of the Russian Jewish, modernist movement that included Lissitsky, Altman, Aronson and Chagall, all of whom were seeking to revitalize Jewish art during a period which saw the cultural efflorescence of Yiddish literature, music, theater, and art. Klezmer Yiddish: or (klezmer), pl. (klezmorim) instruments of music is a musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe. Played by professional musicians called klezmorim in ensembles known as kapelye, the genre originally consisted largely of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. In the United States the genre evolved considerably as Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, who arrived between 1880 and 1924,  came into contact with American jazz. During the initial years after the klezmer revival of the 1970s, the American sub-variety was what most people knew as klezmer, although in the 21st century musicians began paying more attention to the original pre-jazz traditions as revivalists including Josh Horowitz, Yale Strom and Bob Cohen have spent years doing field research in Eastern/Central Europe. Additionally, later immigrants from the Soviet Union, such as German Goldenshtayn, took their surviving repertoires to the United States and Israel in the 1980s. Compared with most other European folk-music styles, little is known about the history of klezmer music, and much of what is said about it remains uncertain. There is, however, a heavy influence of Romani music, since many Jews and Roma lived side by side in Europe.  Popular musician Leonard Cohen, composed many songs which had quite a following where the Klezmer style was evident. Songs such as Dance me to the end of love rely heavily on a violin but also have chord structures that feel Eastern European, Romanian, Greek or Gypsy in flavor or sound. Some aspects of these Klezmer-feeling Cohen compositions, as rendered, were surely modern in some of the instruments used, but the distinctive Jewish Klezmer feel shines through, and arguably, these numbers by Cohen are the most widely-heard examples of Klezmer music in the modern era due to Cohens prolific multi-generational appeal and status as a popular poet-songwriter-singer who was very popular on several continents in the Western World sine the 1960s until his death a few years back. Contents 1 Etymology 2 Style 3 History 4 Repertoire 5 Song types 6 Song structure 7 Orchestration 8 Time 9 Melodic modes 9.1 Ahava Rabboh/Freygish 9.2 Mi Shebeirach 9.3 Adoyn-y Moloch 9.4 Mogen Ovoys 9.5 Yishtabach 10 Published CD-ROMs 11 Film 12 See also 13 References 14 External links Etymology This section’s factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk:Klezmer. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. (January 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The term klezmer comes from a combination of Hebrew words: kli, meaning “tool, utensil or instrument” and zemer, “melody”; leading to k’li zemer , literally “vessels (instruments) of music” or “musical instrument”.  Originally, klezmer referred to musical instruments, and was later extended to refer, as a pejorative, to musicians themselves.  From the 16th to 18th centuries, it replaced older terms such as leyts (clown).  It was not until the late 20th century that the word came to identify a musical genre. Early 20th century recordings and writings most often refer to the style as “Yiddish” music, although it is also sometimes called Freilech music (Yiddish, literally “Happy music”). The first recordings to use the term “klezmer” to refer to the music were The Klezmorim’s East Side Wedding and Streets of Gold in 1977/78, followed by Andy Statman and Zev Feldman’s Jewish Klezmer Music in 1979. Style Klezmer is easily identifiable by its characteristic expressive melodies, reminiscent of the human voice, complete with laughing and weeping. This is not a coincidence; the style is meant to imitate khazone and paraliturgical singing. A number of dreydlekh (a Yiddish word for musical ornaments), such as krekhts (“sobs”) are used to produce this style. Various musical styles influenced traditional klezmer music. Perhaps the strongest and most enduring is Romanian music. Klezmer musicians heard and adapted traditional Romanian music, which is reflected in the dance forms found throughout surviving klezmer music repertoire e. Horas, Doinas, Sirbas, and Bulgars History Klezmer musicians at a wedding, Ukraine, ca. 1925 The Bible has several descriptions of orchestras and Levites making music, but after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, many Rabbis discouraged musical instruments. However, the importance of merrymaking at weddings was not diminished, and musicians came forth to fill that niche, klezmorim. The first klezmer known by name was Yakobius ben Yakobius, a player of the aulos in Samaria in the 2nd century CE. The earliest written record of the klezmorim is in the 15th century. It is unlikely that they played music recognizable as klezmer today since the style and structure of klezmer as we know it today is thought to have come largely from 19th century Bessarabia, where the bulk of today’s traditional repertoire was written. Klezmorim based much of their secular instrumental music upon the devotional vocal music of the synagogue, in particular cantorial music. Even so, klezmorimalong with other entertainerswere typically looked down on by Rabbis because of their secular traveling lifestyle. Klezmorim often travelled and played with Romani musicians (“lutari”), because they occupied similar social strata. They had a great influence on each other musically and linguistically (the extensive klezmer argot in Yiddish includes some Romani borrowings). Josef Gusikov Klezmorim were respected for their musical abilities and diverse repertoire, but they were by no means restricted to playing klezmer. They sometimes played for Christian churches and local aristocracy, and taught some Italian classical violin virtuosos.  Like other professional musicians, klezmorim were often limited by authorities. In Ukraine they were banned from playing loud instruments, until the 19th century. Hence musicians took up the violin, tsimbl (or cymbalom), and other stringed instruments. The first musician to play klezmer in European concerts, Josef Gusikov, played a type of xylophone which he invented and called a “wood and straw instrument”. It was laid out like a cymbalom, and attracted comments from Felix Mendelssohn (highly favourable) and Liszt (condemnatory). Later, around 1855 under the reign of Alexander II of Russia, Ukraine permitted loud instruments. The clarinet started to replace the violin as the instrument of choice. Also, a shift towards brass and percussion happened when klezmorim were conscripted into military bands. As Jews left Eastern Europe and the shtetls (see a related article about the artist Chaim Goldberg, who depicted klezmer performers of the shtetl in his paintings), klezmer spread throughout the globe, to the United States as well as to Canada, Mexico, and Argentina. Initially, the klezmer tradition was not maintained much by U. In the 1920s, clarinetists Dave Tarras and Naftule Brandwein caused a brief, influential revival, but Hankus Netsky has noted that few of the performers of this era actually referred to themselves as klezmorim, and the term is found nowhere in any Jewish instrumental recording of the time.  The soprano Isa Kremer was a popular exponent of Yiddish song internationally during the first half of the 20th century; notably making several recordings with Columbia Records and appearing often at Carnegie Hall and other major venues in the U. Jews began to adopt mainstream culture, the popularity of klezmer waned, and Jewish celebrations were increasingly accompanied by non-Jewish music. While traditional performances may have been on the decline, many Jewish composers who had mainstream success, such as Leonard Bernstein and Aaron Copland, continued to be influenced by the klezmeric idioms heard during their youth (as Gustav Mahler had been). George Gershwin was familiar with klezmer music, and the opening clarinet glissando of Rhapsody in Blue suggests this influence, although the composer did not compose klezmer directly.  Some clarinet stylings of swing jazz bandleaders Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw can be interpreted as having been derived from klezmer, as can the “freilach swing” playing of other Jewish artists of the period such as trumpeter Ziggy Elman. At the same time, non-Jewish composers were also turning to klezmer for a prolific source of fascinating thematic material. Dmitri Shostakovich in particular admired klezmer music for embracing both the ecstasy and the despair of human life, and quoted several melodies in his chamber masterpieces, the Piano Quintet in G minor, op. 57 (1940), the Piano Trio No. 2 in E minor, op. 67 (1944), and the String Quartet No. 8 in C minor, op. The Klezmatics, an American klezmer band In the mid-to-late 1970s there was a klezmer revival in the United States and Europe, led by Giora Feidman, The Klezmorim, Zev Feldman, Andy Statman, and the Klezmer Conservatory Band. They drew their repertoire from recordings and surviving musicians of U. In 1985, Henry Sapoznik and Adrienne Cooper founded KlezKamp to teach klezmer and other Yiddish music. The 1980s saw a second wave of revival, as interest grew in more traditionally inspired performances with string instruments, largely with non-Jews of the United States and Germany. Musicians began to track down older European klezmer, by listening to recordings, finding transcriptions, and making field recordings of the few klezmorim left in Eastern Europe. Key performers in this style are Joel Rubin, Budowitz, Khevrisa, Di Naye Kapelye, Yale Strom, The Chicago Klezmer Ensemble, The Maxwell Street Klezmer Band, the violinists Alicia Svigals, Steven Greenman,  Cookie Segelstein and Elie Rosenblatt, flutist Adrianne Greenbaum, and tsimbl player Pete Rushefsky. Other artists like Yale Strom used their first-hand field research and recordings from as early as 1981 in Central and Eastern Europe as a foundation for more of a fusion between traditional repertoire and original compositions, as well as incorporating the Rom (Roma) music element into the Jewish style. Bands like Brave Old World, Hot Pstromi and The Klezmatics also emerged during this period. Klezmer musicians in Jerusalem In the 1990s, musicians from the San Francisco Bay Area helped further interest in klezmer music by taking it into new territory. Clarinetist Ben Goldberg and drummer Kenny Wollesen, after playing in Bay Area-based The Klezmorim, formed the critically acclaimed New Klezmer Triokicking open the door for radical experiments with Ashkenazi music and paving the way for John Zorn’s Masada, Naftule’s Dream, Don Byron’s Mickey Katz project and violinist Daniel Hoffman’s klezmer/jazz/Middle-Eastern fusion band Davka. The New Orleans Klezmer All-Stars  also formed in 1991 with a mixture of New Orleans funk, jazz, and klezmer styles. Interest in klezmer has been sustained and supported by such well-known avant-garde jazz musicians as John Zorn and Don Byron, who sometimes blend klezmer with jazz. Klezmer melodies have recently been incorporated into songs by third-wave Ska band Streetlight Manifesto. Singer/songwriter Tomas Kalnoky frequently slips in horn licks with Russian and Jewish origins. The Jerusalem Klezmer Association with Ultra Orthodox Jewish musicians are playing Klezmer music Mames Babegenush was formed in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2004 out of strong Scandinavian roots merged with traditional klezmer, influenced on the klezmer side by masters like Naftule Brandwein, Abe Schwartz and Dave Tarras. Today the band has developed a new sound of modern klezmer, pushing the perimeter of klezmer to incorporate many cultures and touring worldwide. The band’s most recent album Mames Babegenush With Strings (2017) was warmly received with 5-6 stars reviews in such magazines as Songlines and fRoots.  Starting in 2008, “The Other Europeans” project, funded by several EU cultural institutions,  spent a year doing intensive field research in Moldavia under the leadership of Alan Bern and scholar Zev Feldman. They wanted to explore klezmer and lautari roots, and fuse the music of the two “other European” groups. The resulting band now performs internationally. As with this ensemble, groups like Di Naye Kapelye and Yale Strom & Hot Pstromi have incorporated Rom musicians and elements since their inceptions. A separate klezmer tradition had developed in Israel in the 20th century. Clarinetists Moshe Berlin and Avrum Leib Burstein are known exponents of the klezmer style in Israel. In order to preserve and promote klezmer music in Israel, Burstein founded the Jerusalem Klezmer Association, which has become a center for learning and performance of Klezmer music in the country.  Repertoire According to Walter Zev Feldman, the klezmer dance repertoire seems to have been relatively uniform across the areas of Jewish settlement in the Russian Empire.  Much of the traditional klezmer repertoire was created by professional klezmer musicians in the style of their region or tradition, and much co-territorial music such as non-Jewish folksongs, especially Romanian music (mainly from Moldavia), as well as Ukrainian music and Ottoman music, and the musics of other minorities living in the same areas as Jews in Southeastern Europe such as Crimean Tatars. Historically, young klezmorim learned tunes from their family and their elders in bands. However, there were several times in history where this transmission broke down, including mass emigration, but especially the Holocaust, which destroyed most of Jewish life and culture in Europe. Few scions of klezmer dynasties remained in Europe, one notable exception being Leopold Kozlowski of Poland. Undoubtedly, much has been lost of the repertoires played in various locations and social contextsespecially wedding repertoire, since although Jewish weddings could last several days, early recording technology could only capture a few minutes at a time. Also, recordings specific to one area may not have represented klezmer repertoire from other parts of the region. A few older klezmorimsuch as Leon Schwartz, Dave Tarras, and German Goldenshtaynsurvived into the klezmer revival era and could recall some forgotten repertoire. Also, some transcriptions survive from the 19th century. Some ethnomusicological work from Jewish Eastern Europe is still available in print, notably the work of Soviet Jewish field researcher Moshe Beregovski. In the 21st century, klezmer is typically learned from “fake books” and transcriptions of old recordings, although the music was traditionally transmitted and learned by ear. Song types Most klezmer pieces are for dancing to, from fast to slow tempo: Freylekhs (also Bulgar, bulgarish literally “Bulgarian”, volekhl/vulekhl literally “Wallachian”, or “Romanian”) is an 8 8 (divided 3+3+2 8) circle dance, usually in the Ahava Rabboh melodic mode. Typically piano, accordion, or bass plays a duple oompah beat. These are by far the most popular klezmer dances. The name “Bulgar” (Yiddish “bulgarish”) comes from the Romanian traditional song and dance (Romanian bulgareasc). “Freylekh” is the Yiddish word for festive. Sher is a set dance in 2 4. It is one of the most common klezmer dances. Its name comes from the straight-legged, quick movements of the legs, reminiscent of the shears (Yiddish: sher) of tailors. Khosidl, or khusidl, named after the Hasidic Jews who danced it, is a more dignified embellished dance in 2 4 or 4 4. The dance steps can be performed in a circle or in a line. Hora or zhok is a Romanian-style dance in a hobbling 3 8 time with beats on 1 and 3, and is even more embellished. The Israeli hora derives its roots from the Romanian hora. The Yiddish name zhok comes from the Romanian term joc (literally “dance”) Kolomeike is a fast and catchy dance in 2 4 time, which originated in Ukraine, and is prominent in the folk music of that country. Terkish is a 4 4 dance like the habanera. Terk in America is one famous arrangement by Naftule Brandwein, who used this form extensively. As its name indicates, it recalls Turkish styles. Skotshne (“hopping”) could be an instrumental display piece, but also a dance piece, like a more elaborate freylekhs. Nigun means “melody” in both Yiddish and Hebrew, a mid-paced song in 2 4. Waltzes were very popular, whether classical, Russian, or Polish. A padespan was a sort of Russian/Spanish waltz known to klezmers. Mazurka and polka, Polish and Czech dances, respectively, were often played for both Jews and Gentiles. Sirba a Romanian dance in 2 2 or 2 4 (Romanian sârb). It features hopping steps and short bursts of running, accompanied by triplets in the melody. Humoresque “Halaka” dance, a traditional Israeli dance from Safed in Galilee; it has an ancient melody handed down from generation to generation. Tango well-known dance that originated in Argentina. These were extremely popular around the world in the 1930s, and many Eastern European tangos were originally written by Jews. Types not designed for dance are: Doina is an improvisational lament usually performed solo, and is extremely important in weddings. Its basis is the Romanian shepherd’s lament, so it has an expressive vocal quality, like the singing of the khazn. Although it has no form, it is not just random sounds in a Jewish modethe musician works with very particular references to Jewish prayer and East European laments. Often these references might occur in the form of harmonic movements or modal maneuvers that quote or otherwise invoke traditional Jewish cantorial practices. Typically it is performed on violin, cymbalom or clarinet, though it has been done on banjo, xylophone, flute, cornet, saxophone, tuba, and many other instruments. Often the doina is the first of a three-part set, followed by a hora, then either a freylekhs or khusidl. One can even hear recordings of contemporary vocalists singing the doina, including Michael Alpert and Elizabeth Schwartz. Taksim is a freeform prelude that introduces the motifs of the following piece, which is usually a freylekhs; it was largely supplanted by the doina. Fantazi or fantasy is a freeform song, traditionally played at Jewish weddings to the guests as they dined. It resembles the fantasia of “light” classical music. Song structure Most klezmer tunes are in several sections, sometimes with each in a different key. Many songs have alternating sections with major and minor keys. Klezmer music often uses “folk scales, ” or scales commonly found in folk music, such as the harmonic minor and phrygian dominant. Instrumental tunes often follow the types of chord progressions found in Middle Eastern and Greek music, whereas vocal Yiddish songs are often much simpler, and follow a style and chord progressions similar to Russian folk songs. Freylekhs are often in the form ABCB, which is rare in music. Having a third distinct section is a relatively unique aspect of klezmer music. A common ending for songs is an upwards chromatic run or glissando, followed by a slow staccato 8-5-1. They may also end with a Coda, a new melodic line that is accompanied by a change in the percussion rhythm and an increase in tempo. Orchestration Klezmorim in Rohatyn, Galicia, Austria-Hungary, 1912 Klezmer is generally instrumental, although at weddings klezmorim traditionally accompanied the vocal stylings of the badkhn (wedding entertainer). A typical 19th-century European orchestra included a first violin, a contra-violin or modified 3-stringed viola also called Groyse Fidl Yid. Big Fiddle, Sekund, Kontra or Zsidó Bratsch Hun. ,  a tsimbl (cimbalom or hammered dulcimer), a bass or cello, and sometimes a flute. Other instruments such as a piano or an accordion are used too. The melody is generally assigned to the lead violin, while the other instrumentalists provide harmony, rhythm, and some counterpoint (the latter usually coming from the second violin or viola). The inclusion of Jews in tsarist army bands during the 19th century led to the introduction of typical military band instruments into klezmer. The clarinet now often played the melody. Brass instrumentssuch as the French valved cornet and keyed German trumpeteventually inherited a counter-voice role.  Modern klezmer instrumentation is more commonly influenced by the instruments of the 19th century military bands than the earlier orchestras. The orchestration used by Joel Rubinone of the most experienced and knowledgeable contemporary klezmer musiciansrepresents a historically justified link with that of contemporary ethnic music ensembles of Romania and Hungary.  Percussion in early 20th-century klezmer recordings was generally minimalno more than a wood block or snare drum. The snare drum is the more “authentic” of the two. Wood blocks were introduced by modern klezmorim to imitate recordings from the early 20th century that replaced snare drumswhich tended to overwhelm the recording equipment of the timewith quieter instruments. In Eastern Europe, percussion was often provided by a drummer who played a frame drum, or poyk, sometimes called baraban. A poyk is similar to a bass drum and often has a cymbal or piece of metal mounted on top, which is struck by a beater or a small cymbal strapped to the hand. In Bulgaria, Serbia, and Macedonia, sometimes the paykler (drummer) also played in the tapan style, i. With a switch in one hand on a thin tight head, and a mallet in the other, on a thicker, looser head. The Amsterdam Klezmer Band performing in Cologne, Germany Some klezmer revival bands look to loud-instrument klezmer, jazz, and Dixieland for inspiration. Their bands are similar to a typical jazz band, with some differences. They use a clarinet, saxophone, or trumpet for the melody, and make great use of the trombone for slides and other flourishes. When a cymbalom sound is called for, a piano may be played. There is usually a brass instrument ensemble, and sometimes a tuba substitutes for bass. Performers in this style include The Klezmorim, The Klezmatics, The Klezmer Conservatory Band, and The Maxwell Street Klezmer Band. Other bands look back to different eras or regions in an effort to recreate specific styles of klezmerfor example, Budowitz, the Chicago Klezmer Band, Veretski Pass, Di Naye Kapelye, and the Hungarian band Muzsikas with its album Maramoros: the Lost Jewish Music of Transylvania. “New Orleans Klezmer All Stars” band in the Krewe du Vieux parade Klezmer instrument choices were traditionally based, by necessity, on an instrument’s portability. Music being required for several parts of the wedding ceremony, taking place in different rooms or courtyards, the band had to relocate quickly from space to space. Further, klezmorim were usually itinerant musicians, who moved from town to town for work. Therefore, instruments held in the hands (clarinet, violin, trumpet, flute) or supported by a neck or shoulder strap (accordion, cimbalom, drum) were favored over those that rested on the ground (cello, bass violin), or needed several people to move (piano). In America, this trend has continued into the present day, with hand-held or strap-held instruments like guitars, saxophones, and even harmonicas integrated into klezmer ensembles. For example, the typical American klezmer wedding band uses a portable electronic synthesizer, not a piano. The compositions of Israeli-born composer Ofer Ben-Amots incorporate aspects of klezmer music, most notably his 2006 composition Klezmer Concerto. The piece is for klezmer clarinet (written for Jewish clarinetist David Krakauer),  string orchestra, harp and percussion.  Time In its historic form, klezmer was live music designed to facilitate dancing. Hence, musicians adjusted the tempo as dancers tired or better dancers joined in. Tunes could drag to a near-halt during a particularly sad part, picking up slowly, and eventually bursting into happy song again. This is also a feature of many Rom and Russian folk songs. Like other musicians of their time, and many modern jazz performers, early klezmorim did not rigidly follow the beat. Often they slightly led or trailed it, giving a lilting sound. Melodic modes Further information: Jewish Prayer Modes Klezmer is usually played in shteygerim, prayer modes of the synagogue. They are closely related to Greek, Turkish, and other “co-territorial” modes of Southeastern and Central Europe. The following are the names of these modes; the names are taken from the names of familiar prayers that use that mode (imagine an American composer referring to a piece as “a Grand Old Flag” instead of as “a march”). Ahava Rabboh/Freygish Ahavo Rabboh means “Abounding Love” in Hebrew, and refers to a prayer from the daily morning prayer service (shacharis). It is built on the 5th degree of the harmonic minor scale, with a descending tetrachord to the tonic being the most characteristic final cadence. It is also called the “Freygish”, a Yiddish term derived from the German “Phrygisch”, or Phrygian mode (specifically, the Phrygian dominant scale). It is considered the mode of supplication.  Conversely, it can be thought of as a natural minor scale with lowered 2nd, and augmented 3rd degrees. It is similar to the Arabic Hijaz maqam. Much of klezmer music uses the Ahavah Rabboh scale (such as Nigun Rikud, Tish Nigun and numerous freylekhs), although Mi Sheberach is prevalent as well. Mi Shebeirach Mi Shebeirach means “He who blessed” in Hebrew, from the Mi Shebeirach prayer, recited after the honor of being called to the Torah reading. It is also called the Ukrainian, Altered Ukrainian, Doina, or Altered Dorian. It is similar to the natural minor scale, but has raised fourth and sixth scale degrees, and is used often for the doina or dance pieces, like the Odessa Bulgar. When used in combination with the Ahavoh Rabboh scale in the same piece (as in Mayn Shtetl Yas), the Mi Shebeirach section is usually a whole tone below the Ahavoh Rabboh scale (for example, D Ahavoh Rabboh changes to C Mi Shebeirach or vice versa). Adoyn-y Moloch Adoyn-y Moloch means “my Lord reigns” in Hebrew. It is common in traditional synagogue services (they are the beginning words of many of the Psalms). It is similar to the Western Mixolydian mode and can be thought of as a major scale with a lowered 7th, which is sometimes raised at cadences, but is generally avoided altogether. Mogen Ovoys Mogen Ovoys means “our forebears’ shield” in Hebrew. It is an older mode from the synagogue, derived from the Friday night prayers. It is similar to the Western melodic minor scale. Yishtabach Yishtabach means “it shall become superb” in Hebrew (from the daily morning services). It has a frequent lowering of the 2nd and 5th. It is related to Mogein Ovoys, above. A Jewish wedding is a wedding ceremony that follows Jewish laws and traditions. While wedding ceremonies vary, common features of a Jewish wedding include a ketubah (marriage contract) which is signed by two witnesses, a chuppah (or huppah; wedding canopy), a ring owned by the groom that is given to the bride under the canopy and the breaking of a glass. Technically, the Jewish wedding process has two distinct stages: kiddushin (sanctification or dedication, also called erusin, betrothal in Hebrew) and nissuin (marriage), when the couple start their life together. The first stage prohibits the woman to all other men, requiring a get (religious divorce) to dissolve, and the final stage permits the couple to each other. The ceremony that accomplishes nisuin is known as chuppah.  Today, erusin/kiddushin occurs when the groom gives the bride a ring or other object of value with the intent of creating a marriage. There are differing opinions as to which part of the ceremony constitutes nissuin/chuppah; they include standing under the canopy – itself called a chuppah – and being alone together in a room (yichud).  While historically these two events could take place as much as a year apart,  they are now commonly combined into one ceremony.  Contents 1 Signing of the marriage contract 2 Bridal canopy 3 Covering of the bride 4 Unterfirers 5 Circling the groom 6 Presentation of the ring (Betrothal) 7 Seven blessings 8 Breaking the glass 9 Yichud 10 Special dances 11 Birkat hamazon and sheva brachot 12 Jewish prenuptial agreements 13 Timing 14 See also 15 References 16 External links Signing of the marriage contract Before the wedding ceremony, the groom agrees to be bound by the terms of the ketubah (marriage contract) in the presence of two witnesses, whereupon the witnesses sign the ketubah.  The ketubah details the obligations of the groom to the bride, among which are food, clothing, and marital relations. This document has the standing of a legally binding agreement, though it may be hard to collect these amounts in a secular court.  It is often written as an illuminated manuscript that is framed and displayed in their home.  Under the chuppah, it is traditional to read the signed ketubah aloud, usually in the Aramaic original, but sometimes in translation. Traditionally, this is done to separate the two basic parts of the wedding.  Non-Orthodox Jewish couples may opt for a bilingual ketubah, or for a shortened version to be read out. Bridal canopy A traditional Jewish wedding ceremony takes place under a chuppah (wedding canopy), symbolizing the new home being built by the couple when they become husband and wife.  Covering of the bride Jewish Wedding, Venice, 1780 Musée d’Art et d’Histoire du Judaïsme Prior to the ceremony, Ashkenazi Jews have a custom to cover the face of the bride (usually with a veil), and a prayer is often said for her based on the words spoken to Rebecca in Genesis 24:60.  The veiling ritual is known in Yiddish as badeken. Various reasons are given for the veil and the ceremony, a commonly accepted reason is that it reminds the Jewish people of how Jacob was tricked by Laban into marrying Leah before Rachel, as her face was covered by her veil (see Vayetze).  Another reasoning is that Rebecca is said to have veiled herself when approached by Isaac, who would become her husband.  Sephardi Jews do not perform this ceremony. Additionally, the veil emphasizes that the groom is not solely interested in the bride’s external beauty, which fades with time; but rather in her inner beauty which she will never lose.  Unterfirers In many Orthodox Jewish communities, the bride is escorted to the chuppah by both mothers, and the groom is escorted by both fathers, known by Ashkenazi Jews as unterfirers (Yiddish: “Ones who lead under”).  In another custom, bride and groom are each escorted by their respective parents.  However, the escorts may be any happily married couple, if parents are unavailable or undesired for some reason.  There is a custom in some Ashkenazi communities for the escorts to hold candles as they process to the chuppah.  Circling the groom Plain gold wedding bands Outdoor huppa in Vienna A groom breaking the glass Dances at a Jewish wedding in Morocco, early 19th century 1893 painting of a marriage procession in a Russian shtetl by Isaak Asknaziy In Ashkenazi tradition, the bride traditionally walks around the groom three or seven times when she arrives at the chuppah. This may derive from Jeremiah 31:22, “A woman shall surround a man”. The three circuits may represent the three virtues of marriage: righteousness, justice and loving kindness (see Hosea 2:19). Seven circuits derives from the Biblical concept that seven denotes perfection or completeness.  Sephardic Jews do not perform this ceremony.  Presentation of the ring (Betrothal) In traditional weddings, two blessings are recited before the betrothal; a blessing over wine, and the betrothal blessing, which is specified in the Talmud.  The wine is then tasted by the couple.  Rings are not actually required; they are simply the most common way (since the Middle Ages) of fulfilling the bride price requirement. The bride price (or ring) must have a monetary value no less than a single prutah (the smallest denomination of currency used during the Talmudic era). The low value is to ensure that there are no financial barriers to access marriage.  According to Jewish law, the ring must be composed of solid metal (gold or silver are preferred; alloys are discouraged), with no jewel inlays or gem settings, so that it’s easy to ascertain the ring’s value. Others ascribe a more symbolic meaning, saying that the ring represents the ideal of purity and honesty in a relationship. However, it’s quite common for Jewish couples (especially those who are not Orthodox) to use weddings rings with engraving, metallic embellishments, or to go a step further and use gemstone settings. Some Orthodox couples will use a simple gold or silver band during the ceremony to fulfill the halachic obligations, and after the wedding, the bride may wear a ring with any decoration she likes.  The groom gives the bride a ring, traditionally a plain wedding band,  and recites the declaration: Behold, you are consecrated to me with this ring according to the law of Moses and Israel. The groom places the ring on the bride’s right index finger. According to traditional Jewish law, two valid witnesses must see him place the ring.  This ring is sometimes presented outside the chuppah to avoid conflicts with Jewish law.  Seven blessings The Sheva Brachot or seven blessings are recited by the hazzan or rabbi, or by select guests who are called up individually. Being called upon to recite one of the seven blessings is considered an honour. The groom is given the cup of wine to drink from after the seven blessings. The bride also drinks the wine. In some traditions, the cup will be held to the lips of the groom by his new father-in-law and to the lips of the bride by her new mother-in-law.  Traditions vary as to whether additional songs are sung before the seven blessings. Breaking the glass After the bride has been given the ring, or at the end of the ceremony (depending on local custom), the groom breaks a glass, crushing it with his right foot, and the guests shout: Mazel Tov! At some contemporary weddings, a lightbulb may be substituted because it is thinner and more easily broken, and it makes a louder popping sound.  The origin of this custom is unknown, although many reasons have been given. The primary reason is that joy must always be tempered.  This is based on two accounts in the Talmud of rabbis who, upon seeing that their son’s wedding celebration was getting out of hand, broke a vessel in the second case a glass to calm things down.  Another explanation is that it is a reminder that despite the joy, Jews still mourn the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Because of this, some recite the verses If I forget thee / O Jerusalem… 137:5 at this point.  Many other reasons have been given by traditional authorities.  Former Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel Ovadia Yosef has strongly criticized the way this custom is sometimes carried out, arguing that “Many unknowledgeable people fill their mouths with laughter during the breaking of the glass, shouting’mazel tov’ and turning a beautiful custom meant to express our sorrow” over Jerusalem’s destruction into an opportunity for lightheadedness.  Reform Judaism has a new custom where brides and grooms break the wine glass together. Yichud Yichud (togetherness or seclusion) refers to the Ashkenazi practice of leaving the bride and groom alone for 1020 minutes after the wedding ceremony. The couple retreats to a private room. Yichud can take place anywhere, from a rabbi’s study to a synagogue classroom.  The reason for yichud is that according to several authorities, standing under the canopy alone does not constitute chuppah, and seclusion is necessary to complete the wedding ceremony.  However, Sephardic Jews do not have this custom, as they consider it a davar mechoar (repugnant thing), compromising the couple’s modesty.  In Yemen, the Jewish practice was not for the groom and his bride to be secluded in a canopy (chuppah), as is widely practiced today in Jewish weddings, but rather in a bridal chamber that was, in effect, a highly decorated room in the house of the groom. This room was traditionally decorated with large hanging sheets of colored, patterned cloth, replete with wall cushions and short-length mattresses for reclining.  Their marriage is consummated when they have been left together alone in this room. The chuppah is described the same way in Sefer HaIttur (12th century),  and similarly in the Jerusalem Talmud.  Special dances Dancing is a major feature of Jewish weddings. It is customary for the guests to dance in front of the seated couple and entertain them.  Traditional Ashkenazi dances include: The Krenzl, in which the bride’s mother is crowned with a wreath of flowers as her daughters dance around her (traditionally at the wedding of the mother’s last unwed daughter). The Mizinke, a dance for the parents of the bride or groom when their last child is wed. The “Horah” is a Middle Eastern/Israeli style dance usually played as a second dance set. The gladdening of the bride, in which guests dance around the bride, and can include the use of “shtick”silly items such as signs, banners, costumes, confetti, and jump ropes made of table napkins. The Mitzvah tantz, in which family members and honored rabbis are invited to dance in front of the bride (or sometimes with the bride in the case of a father or grandfather), often holding a gartel, and then dancing with the groom. At the end the bride and groom dance together themselves. Birkat hamazon and sheva brachot After the meal, Birkat Hamazon (Grace after meals) is recited, followed by sheva brachot. At a wedding banquet, the wording of the blessings preceding Birkat Hamazon is slightly different from the everyday version.  Prayer booklets called benchers, may be handed out to guests. After the prayers, the blessing over the wine is recited, with two glasses of wine poured together into a third, symbolising the creation of a new life together.  Jewish prenuptial agreements In present times, Jewish rabbinical bodies have developed Jewish prenuptial agreements designed to prevent the husband from withholding a get from his wife, should she want a divorce. Such documents have been developed and widely used in the United States, Israel, the United Kingdom and other places. However, this approach has not been universally accepted, particularly by the Orthodox.  Conservative Judaism developed the Lieberman clause in order to prevent husbands from refusing to give their wives a get. To do this, the ketubah has built in provisions; so, if predetermined circumstances occur, the divorce goes into effect immediately.  Timing Weddings should not be performed on Shabbat or on Jewish holidays, including Chol HaMoed. Some months and days are considered more or less auspicious. The item “1932 SIGNED LITHOGRAPH Russian RYBACK Jewish AVANT GARDE Shtetl JUDAICA ART” is in sale since Thursday, August 6, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Religion & Spirituality\Judaism\Images”. The seller is “judaica-bookstore” and is located in TEL AVIV. This item can be shipped worldwide.
- Country of Manufacture: Ca 1932 PARIS FRANCE
- Handmade: Yes
- Country/Region of Manufacture: Russian Federation
- Religion: Judaism