1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA

1948-Holocaust-JEWISH-ART-BOOK-Yizkor-JUDAICA-Israel-HEBREW-Drawings-DIASPORA-01-ldid
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA

1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA
It’s an ARTISTIC PORTFOLIO Being actualy a YIZKOR BOOK (A MEMORIAL BOOK – YISKOR BIKHER – YIZKOR BUCH) for the destructed and tortured Eastern European JEWRY and the JEWISH TYPES who lived there. The ART PORTFOLIO with its 44 large drawings and paintings was created in 1948 (dated) by the Jewish artist MOSHE BARASCH (Also BARASH) who is considered as the father of ART HISTORY in Israel. Barasch , Of Romanian descent , A HOLOCAUST survivor, An anti Nazi warrior in the Romanian resistance and later on in the RED ARMY has also participated in the BRICHA illegal immigration actions after the Holocaust and the ISRAEL 1948 WAR of INDEPENDENCE. His HOLOCAUST IMPRESSIONS are somewhat POETIC and EXPRESSIONIST rather than a REALISTIC documentation – Impressions of AGONY, SUFFERING and TORTURE. The portfolio is named FIGURES From the DARKNESS with its main HOLOCAUST CHAPTER of 24 drawings ” From the ABYSS Of OBLIVION “. Illustrated PORTFOLIO- FILE of folded thin cardboard. 44 loose throughout illustrated thick stock SHEETS + 6 large pp of preface and commentaries. Slight wear of poertfolio. (Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images). Will be sent inside a protective rigid packaging. AUTHENTICITY : This is an ORIGINAL vintage 1948 HOLOCAUST ART PORTFOLIO (Dated). The FIRST and ONLY edition. NOT a reproduction or a reprint , It holds a life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY. It will be sent protected inside a protective rigid packaging. BARASCH, MOSHE BARASCH, MOSHE (19202004), Israeli art scholar. Barasch can be considered the father of art history in Israel, a fact acknowledged by the State in 1996 when it awarded him the first Israel Prize in art history. Born in Czernowitz, he was a child prodigy as a painter and writer. He had his first exhibition of Expressionist paintings in 1933, and in 1935 published his first book, Die Glaubens schwere Wege, stating his belief in Judaism and Zionism. During World War ii, he joined the Romanian Resistance and later enlisted in the Red Army to fight the Nazis, as well as the Haganah’s Beriah organization. Arriving in Israel in 1948, he fought in the War of Independence and published in Abysmal Reflections (1948) drawings reflecting his reactions to World War ii. In 1956 he began teaching art history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and in 1965 inaugurated there a Department of Art History, the first in Israel. He believed that one should be able to teach all periods of art and stressed the importance of a broad knowledge of philosophy and culture in understanding art. He began to publish books on the Renaissance and Crusader Art, and later broadened his scope to include studies on the depiction of God, the iconography of gestures and facial expressions, aesthetics and the theory of color in Renaissance art, the ways that art communicates with the spectator, and the way the mental concept of blindness is imaged in art. His published works on art history include Michelangelo (1961); The Image of Man in the History of Art (1967); Introduction to Renaissance Art (1968); Crusader Figural Sculpture in the Holy Land (1971); Gestures of Despair in Medieval and Early Renaissance Art (1976); Approaches to Art 17501950 (1977); Light and Color in the Italian Renaissance Theory of Art (1978); Icon: Studies in the History of an Idea (1981); Theories of Art: from Plato to Winckelmann (1985); Giotto and the Language of Gesture (1987); Modern Theories of Art, vol. 2 (1998); Imago Hominis: Studies in the Language of Art (1991); The Language of Art: Studies in Interpretation (1997); Das Gottesbild: Studien zur Darstellung des Unsichtbaren (1998); Blindness: The History of a Mental Image in Western Thought (2001). Prof :1996 (book Prize Israel the From an, population Jewish large a with city major a), Romania in then Czernowitz in born was Barasch Moshe more, generations three for there lived had family His. Languages and religion, culture of hub international. Years hundred a than Hebrew a, father His. Gusta mother his and Menahem father his to Street Jewish the in born was Moshe devout a, grandfather his and, Yiddish and Literature Hebrew taught who Zionist ardent an and intellectual. Literature Yiddish and Hebrew of knowledge with and tradition Hassidic the with both him provided, Hassid instead home at teachers private by tutored was and child a as sickly was Moshe defect heart a of Because even, age early an at discovered were prodigy child a being his and artist an as talent His. School in of were paintings his of Exhibitions. Time his of society Jewish the by accepted not was painting though displayed already he but, old years 12 only was he when Boston and Prague, Czernowitz in displayed Rabbi of support and help the With. Art of philosophy and history the explore and study to tendency a studied and, libraries and museums art visiting, Europe through traveled Barasch York New of Wise Stephen. There remained still population Jewish whose hundreds create to talent artistic his used He. Palestine to Jews of immigration illegal the Bricha the and. Document forged a holding as arrested was passport real a with someone that police border the to knownwell so were documents His. Saved be and Romania flee to Jews many helped that permits and seals of. Used be to able longer no were documents his, investigation the after, out came truth the When to managed he and, nickname his only but, name his know not did him arrest to came who Detectives German and Italian among efforts publicity sHaganah the directed he where, Italy to 1945 in escape had who sister and parents his send to way a found he 1945 In. Avigur Shaul Commander under refugees. Palestine to survived Palestinian kosher a using, Gimmel Aliya on Israel to immigrated Moshe, 1948 of beginning the At. Europe to Palestine from smuggled were that many of one, passport to due Mahal in recruits foreign with deal to sent was and, recruit foreign a as Palmah the joined Barasch from refugees with dealing in experience his of because and German and Romanian, Hebrew in fluency his the in married had he whom, wife His. Sister and parents his met he, enlisted he After. Palestine to Europe the of Brigade Harel the to he and, Harod Ein Kibbutz to went She. Well as immigrated, ghetto Czernowitz teach to began and Harod Ein in wife his joined he, 1949 in service from released was he When. Palmah and History Art teach to began he Afterwards. There school the in History Art and Cultural and History. Oranim at Seminary Teachers Kibbutz the in History Cultural history to dedicated periodicals in published he articles important the through known became Barasch as, Jerusalem in philosophers of group a with 1952 from meetings regular his through and history art and Hugo Samuel. Prof with friendship deep His. Aesthetics on published and gave he lectures the for as well the of Panofsky Erwin. Prof with studies his and texts philosophical studied he whom with Bergmann a teach to 1956 in him on call to University Hebrew the led all, Princeton in Studies Advanced of Institute attempt first a, discipline academic an as History Art establish to asked was he 1958 In. History Art in course special, library art an, studies of program a: basics the from begin to had He. Field this academize to Israel in , pioneering his to Due. 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Prof to History Art General for Prize Israel the grant to decided have judges the, reasons these all For. 1996 year the for Barash M Moshe Barash View exhibitions » Visit our Information Center to browse the artist file » Moshe Barash, Art Historian and painter, born 1920 Bocobina, Romania. Till 1954 lived in Ein-Harod, painted and taught painting. 1954 Moved to Jerusalem and founded the Art History department in the Hebrew University. Born in Czernowitz, he first gained fame as a child prodigy for his Expressionist paintings on Jewish subjects. He held his first exhibitions at the age of 12 in Czernowitz, and in 1933 his paintings were shown at the 18th Zionist Congress in Prague and at a private salon in Boston after they had been brought to the attention of Dr. 1 One of his paintings Moses (1934) portrayed during the battle with Amalek is now in the Israel Museum. At the same time, through extensive reading in libraries throughout Europe, he taught himself history, art history and philosophy. At the age of 15, he published his first book, Des Glaubens schwere Wege, that states in ecstatic, poetic terms his deep belief in Judaism and in a return to Zion, ideas that colored his entire life. This book shows the strong influence of Hasidism and of Martin Buber, and closely parallels the feeling for Jewish suffering and faith expressed in his paintings. Three years later, in 1938, he published his first learned tract, Josefus Flavius, in which he stressed the differences both between the rational Greco-Roman and mystical Jewish worldviews, and between the national and cosmopolitan tendencies in Jewish life that Josephus tried to combine. These conflicts would play a major part in Baraschs own life, and like Josephus, he too would try to find ways to combine them. However, Barasch also saw in this history a lesson for contemporary Jewry: he wrote of the Eternal Jew who cannot be killed, and continues to survive despite all his sufferings and all the destruction around him. 2 Barasch continued to develop and combine his art with his interest in Judaism, philosophy and history throughout his life. During World War II, he was engaged in the Resistance as a member of the Haganas Briha (flight) organization, forging passports for Jews trying to escape from Europe through Rumania, and he later joined the Red Army to fight the Nazis. Arriving in Israel in 1948 with his wife Berta, he joined in the War of Independence, and also published in Abysmal Reflections drawings that reflect his reactions to his experiences in World War II. He continued painting for many years, now using glowing colors in strong contrasts, but soon combined his various interests by changing his focus from producing art to writing and lecturing about it. He began to teach art and philosophy in kibbutz seminars, and to publish articles on these subjects. Both his understanding as a painter of the actual processes of creative work and his love of philosophy and history aided him in 1 Mayer Ebner, introduction to Moses Barasch, Des Glaubens schwere Wege, Czernowitz, 1935, pp. 5- 8; Jan Assmann, introduction to Representation in Religion: Studies in Honor of Moshe Barasch, ed. Jan Assmann and Albert I. Baumgarten, Leiden, 2001, p. 2 In German, the term Ewige Jude (eternal Jew) is used instead of the English Wandering Jew, and Barasch uses it here to stress not only the wandering but the eternal character of Judaism. Explaining art in his books and in his classes to the same degree as did his wide reading and his intellectual and literary abilities. In 1956, Barasch began to teach courses on art history at the Hebrew University. Inspired by the works of major art historians, especially Erwin Panofsky and Meyer Schapiro who became his friends, he penetrated deeply into the subjects he analyzed, stressing the importance of the history of ideas and art theory to the full understanding of works of art. Although his preferred field was the Renaissance, he disdained the notion of limiting himself to one area, and both wrote and taught on all periods of art history, often combining them, for instance in the course The Classical Sources of Medieval Art (1960). He also instigated the idea of the cross-section which traced a theme for instance, King David in Art (1967) through its development over the ages. His courses would lead him to produce books in Hebrew, such as Michelangelo (1961), The Image of Man in the History of Art (1967) and Introduction to Renaissance Art (1968). To encourage the translation of books on art history and the history of ideas into Hebrew, he joined forces with Mossad Bialik to produce, for instance, Heinrich Wölfflins Principles of Art History (1963), Johan Huizingas Homo Ludens (1984) and Richard Krautheimers Mittelalterliche Synagogen (1994), to which Barasch wrote insightful introductions. He believed that although the universities required lecturers to publish for international audiences, the way to open the Israeli public and students to art was through publications in Hebrew, and was determined to lay a strong basis for publications in this field. The immense popularity of his lectures at the Hebrew University some classes numbered 400 students convinced the University to open a Department of Art History in 1965 under his chairmanship, and to allow him to train young art historians to teach in the department. Despite the small number of teachers that he first assembled, who included Michael Avi-Yonah, Avram Kampf, Bezalel Narkiss, and a number of fledgling assistants (myself included), the department became immediately popular, with 130 students in its first year, and a like number of entering students for many years thereafter. Instead of trying to develop a monopoly on art history at that university, Barasch eagerly helped others to start new projects even when they would compete with those of his own department. He took an active part in opening the art history departments in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Ben Gurion Universities, whose programs were all based on the one he had pioneered in Jerusalem. In like manner, he encouraged students and colleagues to explore topics in a wide variety of fields, including Jewish Art, feeling that each person should find the areas to which he or she could best contribute. He was constantly willing to give people a chance to prove themselves, and a chance to convince him that their ideas were right even if he at first disagreed with them. After retiring from the Hebrew University, he went on, despite bouts of ill health, to teach regularly at Yale and New York University. At the same time, almost every year, he published books on a wide number of subjects that fall into a few major categories especially iconography and art theory in their broadest aspects that develop his early interests. Whereas his early studies on Crusader sculpture in the Holy Land had focused primarily on style (1970-71), he continued to study medieval art, but concentrated on the problems of the icon, figuration and the depiction of God (Icon: Studies in the History of an Idea, 1992; and Das Gottesbild: Studien zur Darstellung des Unsichtbaren, 1998). In a way these works echo his earliest deliberations on God in Des Glaubens schwere Wege, except that now they extended beyond Judaism into the more cosmopolitan sphere of Christian art and thought. This connection to his original interests can also be seen in three works that he wrote on pathos gestures and facial expression, Gestures of Despair in Medieval and Early Renaissance Art (1976), Giotto and the Language of Gesture (1987) and Imago Hominis: Studies in the Language of Art (1991). These themes hark back to his concerns in his early Expressionist paintings, but the subjects have now been raised to a highly intellectual level in analyzing Western religious art, and stress the sources of these gestures and expressions in earlier (often Greek) art. All these works would inspire an international congress on religion and art (Representation in Religion) that was held in his honor in Heidelberg and dealt with Jewish, Greek, Christian, Indian and Buddhist art as well as with problems of imagery in modern art. The fact that such a broad group of subjects and specialists were gathered to honor him shows the international standing he had attained. Another major category of interest concerned theories on art, aesthetics and art history. Barasch began publishing in this field in the early 1960s, with articles on the aesthetic theories of Theophile the Monk and Cristoforo Sorte, and about color in Renaissance thought. 3 In 1977 he published a seminal book on the subject of art historical theories in Hebrew, , that began as a course in Methodology and still serves students in this field today. One of his major books in this area analyzed a little-studied subject, Light and Color in the Italian Renaissance Theory of Art (1978). This subject combined his own love of light and color that he had displayed in the paintings he did in Israel with his deep interest in artists theories that he always stressed were as important as those of philosophers and art critics. In three later books that form a series, Barasch analyzed art theories from Plato to Kandinsky (1985-98), analyzing the ways the ideas of artists and theorists interacted. 4 Far from being a compilation of texts, these books present a clear analysis of the development of ideas about art, covering subjects ranging from The Artist 3 Moshe Barasch, Quelques remarques sur lesthétique chez Théophile le Moine, Revue dEsthétique, 1960, pp. 257-72; idem, Cristoforo Sorte as a Critic of Art, Arte Lombarda 10, 1965, pp. 253-59; idem, The Color Scale in Renaissance Thought in Romanica et Occidentalia, Jerusalem, 1963, pp. 4 Moshe Barasch, Theories of Art from Plato to Winckelmann, New York, 1985; idem, Modern Theories of Art, I: From Winckelmann to Baudelaire, New York, 1990; idem, Modern Theories of Art, II: From Impressionism to Kandinsky, New York, 1998. And the Medium and Unity and Diversity of the Visual Arts to The Subject Matter of Abstract Painting. Two of Baraschs recent books could be used to epitomize his approach to art. In The Language of Art: Studies in Interpretation (1997), Barasch studied the way that art communicates with the spectator from ancient Egypt to our day, and the ways we can use to understand it in depth. Here the source of the approach is the work of art itself, and the interpretation hinges on a number of different sources, from the traditions of image-making to the function and ideas the artist wishes to express. Blindness: The History of a Mental Image in Western Thought (2001) starts from the opposite end of the spectrum, with an idea, one that is particularly frightening to artists for whom eyesight is a primal necessity. It traces the way this idea has been given meaning and form in Western culture from the ancient blind seers, through the Christian belief that the synagogue is blind, to the 18th centurys interest in the way the blind perceive the world. Here, art becomes an illustration for the way culture adumbrates a concept. Barasch was a constant inspiration to his students including myself because of the openness of his mind and the broadness of his interests. He taught us to see the many sides of an artwork and to research art history to its depths by constantly questioning previous suppositions and thus to uncover mysteries that no one had pierced. Moreover, he encouraged us to pursue many new fields and ideas. He died, much mourned, in July 2004, but he will long be remembered. In Memoriam: Moshe Barasch (19202004) Ziva Amishai-Maisels Moshe Barasch could well be considered the father of art history in Israel, a fact acknowledged by the State of Israel in 1996 when it awarded him the first Israel Prize ever given for Art History. He held his first exhibitions at the age of twelve in Czernowitz, and in 1933 his paintings were shown at the Eighteenth Zionist Congress in Prague and at a private salon in Boston after they had been brought to the attention of Dr. 5 One of his paintings Moses (1934) portrayed during the battle with Amalek is now in the Israel Museum. At the same time, through extensive reading in libraries throughout Europe, he taught himself history, art history, and philosophy. At the age of fifteen he published his first book, Des Glaubens schwere Wege, that states in ecstatic, poetic terms his deep belief in Judaism and in a return to Zion, ideas that colored his entire life. However, Barasch also saw in the story of Josephus life a lesson for contemporary Jewry: he wrote of the Eternal Jew who cannot be killed, and continues to survive despite all his sufferings and all the destruction around him. 6 Barasch continued to develop and combine his art with his interest in Judaism, philosophy, and history throughout his life. During World War II, he was engaged in the Resistance forging passports for Jews trying to escape from Europe through Rumania. He later joined the Red Army to fight the Nazis, and worked as a member of the Haganahs Berihah (flight) organization, helping refugees emigrate (usually illegally) to Palestine. Arriving in Israel in 1948 with his wife Berta, he fought in the War of Independence, and also published, in Abysmal Reflections, drawings that reflect his reactions to his experiences in World War II. Both his understanding as a painter of the actual processes of creative work and his love of philosophy and history aided him in explaining art in his books and in his classes to the same degree as did his wide reading and his intellectual and literary abilities. In 1956, Barasch began to teach courses on art history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Although his first love was 5 Mayer Ebner, introduction to Moses Barasch, Des Glaubens schwere Wege, Czernowitz, 1935, pp. 6 In German, the term Ewige Jude (eternal Jew) is used instead of the English Wandering Jew, and Barasch uses it here to stress not only the wandering but the eternal character of Judaism. Renaissance art, he disdained the notion of limiting himself to one area, and both wrote and taught on all periods of art history, often combining them, for instance, in the course The Classical Sources of Medieval Art (1960). He also instigated the idea of the cross-section which traced a theme such as King David in Art (1967) through its development over the ages. His courses would lead him to produce books in Hebrew, on Michelangelo (1961), The Image of Man in the History of Art (1967), and Introduction to Renaissance Art (1968). To encourage the translation of books on art history and the history of ideas into Hebrew, he joined forces with Mossad Bialik to produce, for instance, Heinrich Wölfflins Principles of Art History (1963), Johan Huizingas Homo Ludens (1984), and Richard Krautheimers Mittelalterliche Synagogen (1994), to which Barasch wrote insightful introductions. He believed that although the universities required lecturers to publish for international audiences, the way to open the Israeli public and students to art was through publications in Hebrew, and he was determined to lay a strong foundation for publications in this field. Despite the small number of teachers that he first assembled, who included Michael Avi-Yonah, Avram Kampf, Bezalel Narkiss, and a number of fledgling assistants (myself included), the department became immediately popular, with 130 students in its first year, and a like number of entering students enrolling for many years thereafter. Instead of trying to develop a monopoly on art history at that university, Barasch eagerly helped others to start new projects, even when they would compete with those of his own department. He took an active part in establishing the art history departments in Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Ben Gurion Universities, Malka, should this be uppercased? In like manner, he encouraged students and colleagues to explore topics in a wide range of fields, including Jewish Art, feeling that each person should find the areas to which he or she could best contribute. After retiring from the Hebrew University, he went on despite bouts of ill health to teach regularly at Yale and New York University. At the same time, almost every year he published books on a wide number of subjects that fall into a few major categories especially iconography and art theory in their broadest aspects that develop his early interests. Whereas his early studies on Crusader sculpture in the Holy Land had focused primarily on style (197071), he continued to study medieval art, now concentrating on the problems of the icon, figuration, and the depiction of God (Icon: Studies in the History of an Idea, 1992, and Das Gottesbild: Studien zur Darstellung des Unsichtbaren, 1998). In a way, these works echo his earliest deliberations on God in Des Glaubens schwere Wege, except that now they extended beyond Judaism into the more cosmopolitan sphere of Christian art and thought. This connection to his original interests can also be seen in three works that he wrote on pathos gestures and facial expression, Gestures of Despair in Medieval and Early Renaissance Art (1976), Giotto and the Language of Gesture (1987), and Imago Hominis: Studies in the Language of Art (1991). All these works would inspire an international congress on religion and art (Representation in Religion) that was held in his honor in Heidelberg and dealt with Jewish, Greek, Christian, Indian, and Buddhist art as well as with problems of imagery in modern art. The fact that such a broad group of subjects and specialists were gathered to honor him is indicative of the international standing he had attained. Another major category of interest concerned theories on art, aesthetics, and art history. In three later books that form a series, Barasch analyzed art theories from Plato to Kandinsky (198598), analyzing the ways the ideas of artists and theorists interacted. 8 Far from being a compilation of texts, these books present a clear analysis of the development of ideas about art, covering subjects ranging from The Artist and the Medium and Unity and Diversity of the Visual Arts to The Subject Matter of Abstract Painting. In The Language of Art: Studies in Interpretation (1997), he studied the way that art communicates with the spectator from ancient Egypt to our day, and the methods we can use to understand it in depth. It traces the way this idea has been given meaning and form in Western culture from the ancient blind seers, through the Christian belief that the synagogue is blind, to the 18th eighteenth centurys interest in the way the blind perceive the world. Mayer Ebner, introduction to Moses Barasch, Des Glaubens schwere Wege 7 Moshe Barasch, Quelques remarques sur lesthétique chez Théophile le Moine, Revue dEsthétique, 1960, pp. 8 Moshe Barasch, Theories of Art from Plato to Winckelmann, New York, 1985; idem, Modern Theories of Art, I: From Winckelmann to Baudelaire, New York, 1990; idem, Modern Theories of Art, II: From Impressionism to Kandinsky, New York, 1998. (Czernowitz, 1935), 58; Jan Assmann, introduction to Representation in Religion: Studies in Honor of Moshe Barasch, ed. Baumgarten (Leiden, 2001), x. In German, the term Ewige Jude (eternal Jew) is used instead of the English Wandering Jew, and Barasch uses it here to stress not only the wandering but the eternal character of Judaism. I took this out and made a correction in the text that I think is enough, and it follows the information supplied by his daughter. The information in this note is also not entirely correct as far as what he actually did Name of an organized underground operation moving Jews out of eastern Europe into central and southern Europe between 1944 and 1948 as a step toward their mostly illegal immigration to Palestine. Moshe Barasch, Quelques remarques sur lesthétique chez Théophile le Moine, Revue dEsthétique can you supply volume no. ? I will do so when I get Malkas corrections, as I have to go to the library to do it (1960): 25772; idem, Cristoforo Sorte as a Critic of Art, Arte Lombarda 10 (1965): 25359; idem, The Color Scale in Renaissance Thought, in Romanica et Occidentalia: Études dédiées à la mémoire de Hiram Peri (Phlaum), ed. Moshe Lazar (Jerusalem, 1963), 7487. [author, please confirm that Lazar was the editor; unclear from JNUL catalogue I will check this in the library as I have to order the book to do so] 4. Moshe Barasch, Theories of Art from Plato to Winckelmann (New York, 1985); idem, Modern Theories of Art, I: From Winckelmann to Baudelaire (New York, 1990); idem, Modern Theories of Art, II: From Impressionism to Kandinsky (New York, 1998). The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, [c] was the World War II genocide of the European Jews. Between 1941 and 1945, across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe’s Jewish population. [a][d] The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through work in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Beec, Chemno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland. [4] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Adolf Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed “undesirable”, starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. [5] After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, [6] which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society; this included boycotting Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935. On 910 November 1938, eight months after Germany annexed Austria, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria during what became known as Kristallnacht (the “Night of Broken Glass”). After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. Eventually thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe. The segregation of Jews in ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the “Final Solution to the Jewish Question”, discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, and within territories controlled by Germany’s allies. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with the German Army and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings and pogroms between 1941 and 1945. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945. The European Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era (19331945), [7][8] in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including ethnic Poles, Soviet civilians and prisoners of war, the Roma, the handicapped, political and religious dissidents, and gay men. [e] The death toll of these other groups is thought to be over 11 million. [b] Contents 1 Terminology and scope 1.1 Terminology 1.2 Definition 2 Distinctive features 2.1 Genocidal state 2.2 Collaboration 2.3 Medical experiments 3 Jews in Europe 4 Origins 4.1 Antisemitism and the völkisch movement 4.2 Germany after World War I, Hitler’s world view 5 Rise of Nazi Germany 5.1 Dictatorship and repression (19331939) 5.2 Sterilization Law, Aktion T4 5.3 Nuremberg Laws, Jewish emigration 5.4 Anschluss 5.5 Kristallnacht 5.6 Resettlement 6 Beginning of World War II 6.1 Invasion of Poland 6.1.1 Einsatzgruppen, pogroms 6.1.2 Ghettos, Jewish councils 6.2 Invasion of Norway and Denmark 6.3 Invasion of France and the Low Countries 6.4 Invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece 6.5 Invasion of the Soviet Union 6.5.1 Reasons 6.5.2 Mass shootings 6.5.3 Toward the Holocaust 6.6 Germany’s allies 6.6.1 Romania 6.6.2 Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary 6.6.3 Italy, Finland, Japan 6.7 Concentration and labor camps 7 Final Solution 7.1 Pearl Harbor, Germany declares war on America 7.2 Wannsee Conference 7.3 Extermination camps 7.3.1 Gas vans 7.3.2 Gas chambers 7.4 Jewish resistance 7.5 Polish resistance, flow of information about the mass murder 7.6 Climax, Holocaust in Hungary 7.7 Death marches 7.8 Liberation 7.9 Death toll 8 Other victims of Nazi persecution during the Holocaust era 8.1 Soviet civilians and POWs 8.2 Non-Jewish Poles 8.3 Roma 8.4 Political and religious opponents 8.5 Gay men, Afro-Germans 9 Aftermath 9.1 Trials 9.2 Reparations 9.3 Historikerstreit, uniqueness question 9.4 Awareness 10 Sources 10.1 Notes 10.2 Citations 10.3 Works cited 11 External links Terminology and scope Terminology Main article: Names of the Holocaust Part of a series on The Holocaust Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944 Responsibility [show] Early policies [show] Victims [show] Ghettos [show] Camps [show] Atrocities [show] Resistance [show] Allied response [show] Aftermath [show] Lists [show] Resources [show] Remembrance [show] vte The term holocaust, first used in 1895 by the New York Times to describe the massacre of Armenian Christians by Ottoman Muslims, [9] comes from the Greek: , romanized: holókaustos; hólos, “whole” + kaustós, “burnt offering”. [f] The biblical term shoah (Hebrew:), meaning “destruction”, became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews. According to Haaretz, the writer Yehuda Erez may have been the first to describe events in Germany as the shoah. Davar and later Haaretz both used the term in September 1939. [12][g] Yom HaShoah became Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day in 1951. [14] On 3 October 1941 the American Hebrew used the phrase “before the Holocaust”, apparently to refer to the situation in France, [15] and in May 1943 the New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the “hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust”. [16] In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, “Holocaust, Jewish (19391945)”. [17] The term was popularised in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust (1978), about a fictional family of German Jews, [18] and in November that year the President’s Commission on the Holocaust was established. [19] As non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims, many Jews chose to use the Hebrew terms Shoah or Churban. [20][h] The Nazis used the phrase “Final Solution to the Jewish Question” (German: die Endlösung der Judenfrage). [22] Definition Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the genocide of the European Jews by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1941 and 1945. [a] Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, [30] offers three definitions: (a) “the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945″, which views Kristallnacht in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; (b) “the systematic mass murder of the Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators between 1941 and 1945″, which recognises the policy shift in 1941 toward extermination; and (c) “the persecution and murder of various groups by the Nazi regime and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945″, which includes all the Nazis’ victims, a definition that fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jews were singled out for annihilation. [31] Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia, in The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust (2000), favor a definition that focuses on the Jews, Roma and handicapped: “the systematic, state-sponsored murder of entire groups determined by heredity”. [32] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum distinguishes between the Holocaust (the murder of six million Jews) and “the era of the Holocaust”, which began when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. [33] Victims of the era of the Holocaust include those the Nazis viewed as inherently inferior (chiefly Slavs, the Roma and the handicapped), and those targeted because of their beliefs or behavior (such as Jehovah’s Witnesses, communists and homosexuals). [34] Peter Hayes writes that the persecution of these groups was less consistent than that of the Jews; the Nazis’ treatment of the Slavs, for example, consisted of “enslavement and gradual attrition”, while some Slavs (Hayes lists Bulgarians, Croats, Slovaks and some Ukrainians) were favored. [24] Against this, Hitler regarded the Jews as what Dan Stone calls a Gegenrasse: a’counter-race’… Not really human at all. [e] Distinctive features Genocidal state Further information: List of Nazi concentration camps German-occupied Europe, 1942 Concentration camps, extermination camps, and ghettos (2007 borders; extermination camps highlighted) The logistics of the mass murder turned Germany into what Michael Berenbaum called a “genocidal state”. [36] Eberhard Jäckel wrote in 1986 during the German Historikerstreita dispute among historians about the uniqueness of the Holocaust and its relationship with the crimes of the Soviet Unionthat it was the first time a state had thrown its power behind the idea that an entire people should be wiped out. [i] Anyone with three or four Jewish grandparents was to be exterminated, [38] and complex rules were devised to deal with Mischlinge (“mixed breeds”). [39] Bureaucrats identified who was a Jew, confiscated property, and scheduled trains to deport them. Companies fired Jews and later used them as slave labor. Universities dismissed Jewish faculty and students. German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; other companies built the crematoria. [36] As prisoners entered the death camps, they surrendered all personal property, [40] which was cataloged and tagged before being sent to Germany for reuse or recycling. [41] Through a concealed account, the German National Bank helped launder valuables stolen from the victims. [42] Collaboration Main articles: Responsibility for the Holocaust, Collaboration with the Axis Powers, and German-occupied Europe Dan Stone writes that since the opening of archives following the fall of former communist states in Eastern Europe, it has become increasingly clear that the Holocaust was a pan-European phenomenon, a series of “Holocausts” impossible to conduct without the help of local collaborators. Without collaborators, the Germans could not have extended the killing across most of the continent. [43][j][45] According to Donald Bloxham, in many parts of Europe “extreme collective violence was becoming an accepted measure of resolving identity crises”. [46] Christian Gerlach writes that non-Germans “not under German command” killed 56 percent of the six million, but that their involvement was crucial in other ways. [47] The industrialization and scale of the murder was unprecedented. Killings were systematically conducted in virtually all areas of occupied Europemore than 20 occupied countries. [48] Nearly three million Jews in occupied Poland and between 700,000 and 2.5 million Jews in the Soviet Union were killed. Hundreds of thousands more died in the rest of Europe. [49] Some Christian churches defended converted Jews, but otherwise, Saul Friedländer wrote in 2007: Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly institution or professional association in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews… [50] Medical experiments Main articles: Nazi human experimentation and Doctors’ trial The 23 defendants during the Doctors’ trial, Nuremberg, 9 December 1946 20 August 1947 Medical experiments conducted on camp inmates by the SS were another distinctive feature. [51] At least 7,000 prisoners were subjected to experiments; most died as a result, during the experiments or later. [52] Twenty-three senior physicians and other medical personnel were charged at Nuremberg, after the war, with crimes against humanity. They included the head of the German Red Cross, tenured professors, clinic directors, and biomedical researchers. [53] Experiments took place at Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, Natzweiler-Struthof, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen, and elsewhere. Some dealt with sterilization of men and women, the treatment of war wounds, ways to counteract chemical weapons, research into new vaccines and drugs, and the survival of harsh conditions. [52] The most notorious physician was Josef Mengele, an SS officer who became the Auschwitz camp doctor on 30 May 1943. [54] Interested in genetics[54] and keen to experiment on twins, he would pick out subjects from the new arrivals during “selection” on the ramp, shouting Zwillinge heraus! [55] They would be measured, killed, and dissected. One of Mengele’s assistants said in 1946 that he was told to send organs of interest to the directors of the “Anthropological Institute in Berlin-Dahlem”. This is thought to refer to Mengele’s academic supervisor, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, director from October 1942 of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem. [56][k] Jews in Europe Country Number of Jews (pre-war) Source Austria 185,000192,000 [49] Belgium 55,00070,000 [49] Bulgaria 50,000 [49] Czechoslovakia 357,000 [58] Denmark (1933) 5,700 [59] Estonia 4,500 [49] Finland 2,000 [49] France 330,000350,000 [49] Germany (1933) 523,000525,000 [49] Greece 77,380 [49] Hungary 725,000825,000 [49] Italy 42,50044,500 [49] Latvia 91,50095,000 [49] Lithuania 168,000 [49] Netherlands 140,000 [49] Poland 3,300,0003,500,000 [49] Romania (1930) 756,000 [49] Soviet Union 3,020,000 [49] Sweden (1933) 6,700 [59] United Kingdom 300,000 [58] Yugoslavia 78,00082,242 [49] Main article: History of the Jews in Europe There were around 9.5 million Jews in Europe in 1933. [60] Most heavily concentrated in the east, the pre-war population was 3.5 million in Poland; 3 million in the Soviet Union; nearly 800,000 in Romania, and 700,000 in Hungary. Germany had over 500,000. [49] Origins Antisemitism and the völkisch movement See also: History of the Jews in Germany, Christianity and antisemitism, Martin Luther and antisemitism, Religious antisemitism, and Racial antisemitism Throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, Jews were subjected to antisemitism based on Christian theology, which blamed them for killing Jesus. Even after the Reformation, Catholicism and Lutheranism continued to persecute Jews, accusing them of blood libels and subjecting them to pogroms and expulsions. [61] The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence in the German empire and Austria-Hungary of the völkisch movement, developed by such thinkers as Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Paul de Lagarde. The movement embraced a pseudo-scientific racism that viewed Jews as a race whose members were locked in mortal combat with the Aryan race for world domination. [62] These ideas became commonplace throughout Germany; the professional classes adopted an ideology that did not see humans as racial equals with equal hereditary value. [63] The Nazi Party (the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or National Socialist German Workers’ Party) originated as an offshoot of the völkisch movement, and it adopted that movement’s antisemitism. [64] Germany after World War I, Hitler’s world view Further information: Aftermath of World War I; Treaty of Versailles; Adolf Hitler, antisemitism and the Holocaust; Mein Kampf; and Historiography of Adolf Hitler After World War I (19141918), many Germans did not accept that their country had been defeated, which gave birth to the stab-in-the-back myth. This insinuated that it was disloyal politicians, chiefly Jews and communists, who had orchestrated Germany’s surrender. Inflaming the anti-Jewish sentiment was the apparent over-representation of Jews in the leadership of communist revolutionary governments in Europe, such as Ernst Toller, head of a short-lived revolutionary government in Bavaria. This perception contributed to the canard of Jewish Bolshevism. [65] Early antisemites in the Nazi Party included Dietrich Eckart, publisher of the Völkischer Beobachter, the party’s newspaper, and Alfred Rosenberg, who wrote antisemitic articles for it in the 1920s. Rosenberg’s vision of a secretive Jewish conspiracy ruling the world would influence Hitler’s views of Jews by making them the driving force behind communism. [66] Central to Hitler’s world view was the idea of expansion and Lebensraum (living space) in Eastern Europe for German Aryans, a policy of what Doris Bergen called “race and space”. Open about his hatred of Jews, he subscribed to common antisemitic stereotypes. [67] From the early 1920s onwards, he compared the Jews to germs and said they should be dealt with in the same way. He viewed Marxism as a Jewish doctrine, said he was fighting against “Jewish Marxism”, and believed that Jews had created communism as part of a conspiracy to destroy Germany. [68] Rise of Nazi Germany Dictatorship and repression (19331939) Further information: Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany, Racial policy of Nazi Germany, and Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933 Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses: SA troopers urge a boycott outside Israel’s Department Store, Berlin, 1 April 1933. All signs read: Germans! “[69] With the appointment in January 1933 of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany and the Nazi’s seizure of power, German leaders proclaimed the rebirth of the Volksgemeinschaft (“people’s community). [70] Nazi policies divided the population into two groups: the Volksgenossen (“national comrades”) who belonged to the Volksgemeinschaft, and the Gemeinschaftsfremde (“community aliens”) who did not. Enemies were divided into three groups: the “racial” or “blood” enemies, such as the Jews and Roma; political opponents of Nazism, such as Marxists, liberals, Christians, and the “reactionaries” viewed as wayward “national comrades”; and moral opponents, such as gay men, the work-shy, and habitual criminals. The latter two groups were to be sent to concentration camps for “re-education”, with the aim of eventual absorption into the Volksgemeinschaft. “Racial” enemies could never belong to the Volksgemeinschaft; they were to be removed from society. [71] Before and after the March 1933 Reichstag elections, the Nazis intensified their campaign of violence against opponents, [72] setting up concentration camps for extrajudicial imprisonment. [73] One of the first, at Dachau, opened on 22 March 1933. [74] Initially the camp contained mostly Communists and Social Democrats. [75] Other early prisons were consolidated by mid-1934 into purpose-built camps outside the cities, run exclusively by the SS. [76] The camps served as a deterrent by terrorizing Germans who did not support the regime. [77] Throughout the 1930s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted. [78]On 1 April 1933, there was a boycott of Jewish businesses. [79] On 7 April 1933, the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service was passed, which excluded Jews and other “non-Aryans” from the civil service. [80] Jews were disbarred from practicing law, being editors or proprietors of newspapers, joining the Journalists’ Association, or owning farms. [81] In Silesia, in March 1933, a group of men entered the courthouse and beat up Jewish lawyers; Friedländer writes that, in Dresden, Jewish lawyers and judges were dragged out of courtrooms during trials. [82] Jewish students were restricted by quotas from attending schools and universities. [80] Jewish businesses were targeted for closure or “Aryanization”, the forcible sale to Germans; of the approximately 50,000 Jewish-owned businesses in Germany in 1933, about 7,000 were still Jewish-owned in April 1939. Works by Jewish composers, [83] authors, and artists were excluded from publications, performances, and exhibitions. [84] Jewish doctors were dismissed or urged to resign. The Deutsches Ärzteblatt (a medical journal) reported on 6 April 1933: Germans are to be treated by Germans only. [85] Sterilization Law, Aktion T4 Main article: Aktion T4 Further information: Nazi eugenics and Erbkrank The poster c. 1937 reads: 60,000 RM is what this person with hereditary illness costs the community in his lifetime. Read Neues Volk, the monthly magazine of the Office of Racial Policy of the Nazi Party. “[86] The economic strain of the Great Depression led Protestant charities and some members of the German medical establishment to advocate compulsory sterilization of the “incurable mentally and physically handicapped, [87] people the Nazis called Lebensunwertes Leben (life unworthy of life). [88] On 14 July 1933, the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses), the Sterilization Law, was passed. [89][90] The New York Times reported on 21 December that year: “400,000 Germans to be sterilized”. [91] There were 84,525 applications from doctors in the first year. The courts reached a decision in 64,499 of those cases; 56,244 were in favor of sterilization. [92] Estimates for the number of involuntary sterilizations during the whole of the Third Reich range from 300,000 to 400,000. [93] In October 1939 Hitler signed a “euthanasia decree” backdated to 1 September 1939 that authorized Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler, the chief of Hitler’s Chancellery, and Karl Brandt, Hitler’s personal physician, to carry out a program of involuntary euthanasia. After the war this program came to be known as Aktion T4, [94] named after Tiergartenstraße 4, the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, where the various organizations involved were headquartered. [95] T4 was mainly directed at adults, but the euthanasia of children was also carried out. [96] Between 1939 and 1941, 80,000 to 100,000 mentally ill adults in institutions were killed, as were 5,000 children and 1,000 Jews, also in institutions. There were also dedicated killing centers, where the deaths were estimated at 20,000, according to Georg Renno, deputy director of Schloss Hartheim, one of the euthanasia centers, or 400,000, according to Frank Zeireis, commandant of the Mauthausen concentration camp. [97] Overall, the number of mentally and physically handicapped murdered was about 150,000. [98] Although not ordered to take part, psychiatrists and many psychiatric institutions were involved in the planning and carrying out of Aktion T4. [99] In August 1941, after protests from Germany’s Catholic and Protestant churches, Hitler canceled the T4 program, [100] although the handicapped continued to be killed until the end of the war. [98] The medical community regularly received bodies for research; for example, the University of Tübingen received 1,077 bodies from executions between 1933 and 1945. The German neuroscientist Julius Hallervorden received 697 brains from one hospital between 1940 and 1944: I accepted these brains of course. Where they came from and how they came to me was really none of my business. [101] Nuremberg Laws, Jewish emigration Main article: Nuremberg Laws See also: Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe to the United Kingdom Czechoslovakian Jews at Croydon airport, England, 31 March 1939, before deportation[102] On 15 September 1935, the Reichstag passed the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, known as the Nuremberg Laws. The former said that only those of “German or kindred blood” could be citizens. Anyone with three or more Jewish grandparents was classified as a Jew. [103] The second law said: Marriages between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden. Sexual relationships between them were also criminalized; Jews were not allowed to employ German women under the age of 45 in their homes. [104][103] The laws referred to Jews but applied equally to the Roma and black Germans. Although other European countriesBulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, and Vichy Francepassed similar legislation, [103] Gerlach notes that Nazi Germany adopted more nationwide anti-Jewish laws and regulations (about 1,500) than any other state. [105] By the end of 1934, 50,000 German Jews had left Germany, [106] and by the end of 1938, approximately half the German Jewish population had left, [107] among them the conductor Bruno Walter, who fled after being told that the hall of the Berlin Philharmonic would be burned down if he conducted a concert there. [109] Other Jewish scientists, including Gustav Hertz, lost their teaching positions and left the country. [110] Anschluss Main article: Anschluss March or April 1938: Jews are forced to scrub the pavement in Vienna. On 12 March 1938, Germany annexed Austria. Austrian Nazis broke into Jewish shops, stole from Jewish homes and businesses, and forced Jews to perform humiliating acts such as scrubbing the streets or cleaning toilets. [111] Jewish businesses were “Aryanized”, and all the legal restrictions on Jews in Germany were imposed. [112] In August that year, Adolf Eichmann was put in charge of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna (Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung in Wien). About 100,000 Austrian Jews had left the country by May 1939, including Sigmund Freud and his family, who moved to London. [113] The Évian Conference was held in France in July 1938 by 32 countries, as an attempt to help the increased refugees from Germany, but aside from establishing the largely ineffectual Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, little was accomplished and most countries participating did not increase the number of refugees they would accept. [114] Kristallnacht Main article: Kristallnacht Potsdamer Straße 26, Berlin, the day after Kristallnacht, November 1938 On 7 November 1938, Herschel Grynszpan, a Polish Jew, shot the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in the German Embassy in Paris, in retaliation for the expulsion of his parents and siblings from Germany. [115][l] When vom Rath died on 9 November, the government used his death as a pretext to instigate a pogrom against the Jews. The government claimed it was spontaneous, but in fact it had been ordered and planned by Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels, although with no clear goals, according to David Cesarani. The result, he writes, was “murder, rape, looting, destruction of property, and terror on an unprecedented scale”. [117] Known as Kristallnacht (or “Night of Broken Glass”), the attacks on 910 November 1938 were partly carried out by the SS and SA, [118] but ordinary Germans joined in; in some areas, the violence began before the SS or SA arrived. [119] Over 7,500 Jewish shops (out of 9,000) were looted and attacked, and over 1,000 synagogs damaged or destroyed. Groups of Jews were forced by the crowd to watch their synagogs burn; in Bensheim they were made to dance around it, and in Laupheim to kneel before it. [120] At least 90 Jews died. The damage was estimated at 39 million Reichmarks. [121] Cesarani writes that [t]he extent of the desolation stunned the population and rocked the regime. [122] It also shocked the rest of the world. The Times of London wrote on 11 November 1938: No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults upon defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday. Either the German authorities were a party to this outbreak or their powers over public order and a hooligan minority are not what they are proudly claimed to be. [123] Between 9 and 16 November, 30,000 Jews were sent to the Buchenwald, Dachau, and Sachsenhausen concentration camps. [124] Many were released within weeks; by early 1939, 2,000 remained in the camps. A decree on 12 November 1938 barred Jews from most remaining occupations. [126] Kristallnacht marked the end of any sort of public Jewish activity and culture, and Jews stepped up their efforts to leave the country. [127] Resettlement Further information: Haavara Agreement Before World War II, Germany considered mass deportation from Europe of German, and later European, Jewry. [128] Among the areas considered for possible resettlement were British Palestine and, after the war began, French Madagascar, [129] Siberia, and two reservations in Poland. [130][m] Palestine was the only location to which any German resettlement plan produced results, via the Haavara Agreement between the Zionist Federation of Germany and the German government. [132] Beginning of World War II Invasion of Poland Einsatzgruppen, pogroms Main articles: Invasion of Poland, Holocaust in Poland, ghettos, and camps Further information: Occupation of Poland, German-occupied Poland, Jews in Poland, Collaboration in Poland, Jedwabne pogrom, Lviv pogroms, Szczuczyn pogrom, and Wsosz pogrom Declaration of war MENU 0:00 Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, announces war with Germany, 3 September 1939. Woman chased by youths armed with clubs during the Lviv pogroms, July 1941, then occupied Poland, now Ukraine When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, triggering a declaration of war from France and the UK, it gained control of an additional two million Jews, reduced to around 1.7 1.8 million in the German zone when the Soviet Union invaded from the east on 17 September. [133] The German army, the Wehrmacht, was accompanied by seven SS Einsatzgruppen (“special task forces”) and an Einsatzkommando, numbering altogether 3,000 men, whose role was to deal with “all anti-German elements in hostile country behind the troops in combat”. Most of the Einsatzgruppen commanders were professionals; 15 of the 25 leaders had PhDs. By 29 August, two days before the invasion, they had already drawn up a list of 30,000 people to send to concentration camps. By the first week of the invasion, 200 people were being executed every day. [134] The Germans began sending Jews from territories they had recently annexed (Austria, Czechoslovakia, and western Poland) to the central section of Poland, which they called the General Government. [135] To make it easier to control and deport them, the Jews were concentrated in ghettos in major cities. [136] The Germans planned to set up a Jewish reservation in southeast Poland around the transit camp in Nisko, but the “Nisko plan” failed, in part because it was opposed by Hans Frank, the new Governor-General of the General Government. [137] In mid-October 1940 the idea was revived, this time to be located in Lublin. Resettlement continued until January 1941 under SS officer Odilo Globocnik, but further plans for the Lublin reservation failed for logistical and political reasons. [138] There had been anti-Jewish pogroms in Poland before the war, including in around 100 towns between 1935 and 1937, [139] and again in 1938. [140] In June and July 1941, during the Lviv pogroms in Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), around 6,000 Polish Jews were murdered in the streets by the Ukrainian People’s Militia and local people. [141][n] Another 2,5003,500 Jews died in mass shootings by Einsatzgruppe C. [142] During the Jedwabne pogrom on 10 July 1941, a group of Poles in Jedwabne killed the town’s Jewish community, many of whom were burned alive in a barn. [143] The attack may have been engineered by the German Security Police. [144][o] Ghettos, Jewish councils Main articles: Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe, Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland, and List of Nazi-era ghettos Main ghettos: Biaystok, Budapest, Kraków, Kovno, ód, Lvov, Riga, Vilna, Warsaw (Warsaw ghetto uprising) Wall of the Warsaw ghetto dividing Iron-Gate Square, 24 May 1941; Lubomirski Palace (left) is outside the ghetto. The Germans established ghettos in Poland, in the incorporated territories and General Government area, to confine Jews. [135] These were closed off from the outside world at different times and for different reasons. [146] In early 1941, the Warsaw ghetto contained 445,000 people, including 130,000 from elsewhere, [147] while the second largest, the ód ghetto, held 160,000. [148] Although the Warsaw ghetto contained 30 percent of the city’s population, it occupied only 2.5 percent of its area, averaging over nine people per room. [149] The massive overcrowding, poor hygiene facilities and lack of food killed thousands. Over 43,000 residents died in 1941. [150] According to a letter dated 21 September 1939 from SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA or Reich Security Head Office), to the Einsatzgruppen, each ghetto had to be run by a Judenrat, or “Jewish Council of Elders”, to consist of 24 male Jews with local influence. [151] Judenräte were responsible for the ghetto’s day-to-day operations, including distributing food, water, heat, medical care, and shelter. The Germans also required them to confiscate property, organize forced labor, and, finally, facilitate deportations to extermination camps. [152] The Jewish councils’ basic strategy was one of trying to minimize losses by cooperating with German authorities, bribing officials, and petitioning for better conditions. [153] Invasion of Norway and Denmark Main articles: German occupation of Norway, Holocaust in Norway, German invasion of Denmark, and Rescue of the Danish Jews Germany invaded Norway and Denmark on 9 April 1940, during Operation Weserübung. Denmark was overrun so quickly that there was no time for a resistance to form. Consequently, the Danish government stayed in power and the Germans found it easier to work through it. Because of this, few measures were taken against the Danish Jews before 1942. [154] By June 1940 Norway was completely occupied. [155] In late 1940, the country’s 1,800 Jews were banned from certain occupations, and in 1941 all Jews had to register their property with the government. According to Dan Stone, only nine survived the war. [157] Invasion of France and the Low Countries Main articles: The Holocaust in Belgium, in Luxembourg, in the Netherlands, in France, The Holocaust in Belgium, The Holocaust in Luxembourg, The Holocaust in the Netherlands, and The Holocaust in France Further information: The Diary of Anne Frank, Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps, and Vel’ d’Hiv Roundup Jewish women wearing yellow badges in occupied Paris, June 1942 In May 1940, Germany invaded the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and France. After Belgium’s surrender, the country was ruled by a German military governor, Alexander von Falkenhausen, who enacted anti-Jewish measures against its 90,000 Jews, many of them refugees from Germany or Eastern Europe. [158] In the Netherlands, the Germans installed Arthur Seyss-Inquart as Reichskommissar, who began to persecute the country’s 140,000 Jews. Jews were forced out of their jobs and had to register with the government. In February 1941, non-Jewish Dutch citizens staged a strike in protest that was quickly crushed. [159] From July 1942, over 107,000 Dutch Jews were deported; only 5,000 survived the war. Most were sent to Auschwitz; the first transport of 1,135 Jews left Holland for Auschwitz on 15 July 1942. Between 2 March and 20 July 1943, 34,313 Jews were sent in 19 transports to the Sobibór extermination camp, where all but 18 are thought to have been gassed on arrival. [160] France had approximately 300,000 Jews, divided between the German-occupied north and the unoccupied collaborationist southern areas in Vichy France (named after the town Vichy). The occupied regions were under the control of a military governor, and there, anti-Jewish measures were not enacted as quickly as they were in the Vichy-controlled areas. [161] In July 1940, the Jews in the parts of Alsace-Lorraine that had been annexed to Germany were expelled into Vichy France. [162] Vichy France’s government implemented anti-Jewish measures in French Algeria and the two French Protectorates of Tunisia and Morocco. [163] Tunisia had 85,000 Jews when the Germans and Italians arrived in November 1942; an estimated 5,000 Jews were subjected to forced labor. [164] The fall of France gave rise to the Madagascar Plan in the summer of 1940, when French Madagascar in Southeast Africa became the focus of discussions about deporting all European Jews there; it was thought that the area’s harsh living conditions would hasten deaths. [165] Several Polish, French and British leaders had discussed the idea in the 1930s, as did German leaders from 1938. [166] Adolf Eichmann’s office was ordered to investigate the option, but no evidence of planning exists until after the defeat of France in June 1940. [167] Germany’s inability to defeat Britain, something that was obvious to the Germans by September 1940, prevented the movement of Jews across the seas, [168] and the Foreign Ministry abandoned the plan in February 1942. [169] Invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece Main articles: The Holocaust in Greece, in Serbia, and in Croatia Yugoslavia and Greece were invaded in April 1941 and surrendered before the end of the month. Germany and Italy divided Greece into occupation zones but did not eliminate it as a country. Yugoslavia, home to around 80,000 Jews, was dismembered; regions in the north were annexed by Germany and regions along the coast made part of Italy. The rest of the country was divided into the Independent State of Croatia, nominally an ally of Germany, and Serbia, which was governed by a combination of military and police administrators. [170] Serbia was declared free of Jews (Judenfrei) in August 1942. [171][172] Croatia’s ruling party, the Ustashe, killed the majority of the country’s Jews and massacred, expelled or forcibly converted to Catholicism the area’s local Orthodox Christian Serb population. [173] On 18 April 1944 Croatia was declared as Judenfrei. [174][175] Jews and Serbs alike were “hacked to death and burned in barns”, writes historian Jeremy Black. One difference between the Germans and Croatians was that the Ustashe allowed its Jewish and Serbian victims to convert to Catholicism so they could escape death. [171] According to Jozo Tomasevich of the 115 Jewish religious communities from Yugoslavia which existed in 1939 and 1940, only the Jewish communities from Zagreb managed to survive the war. [176] Invasion of the Soviet Union Reasons Main article: Invasion of the Soviet Union Further information: Winter campaign of 194142 Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Führer to the German People: 22 June 1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, a day Timothy Snyder called one of the most significant days in the history of Europe… The beginning of a calamity that defies description. [177] Jürgen Matthäus described it as “a quantum leap toward the Holocaust”. [178] German propaganda portrayed the conflict as an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and as a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish, Romani, and Slavic Untermenschen (“sub-humans”). [179] David Cesarani writes that the war was driven primarily by the need for resources: agricultural land to feed Germany, natural resources for German industry, and control over Europe’s largest oil fields. But precisely because of the Soviet Union’s vast resources, “[v]ictory would have to be swift”. [180] Between early fall 1941 and late spring 1942, according to Matthäus, 2 million of the 3.5 million Soviet soldiers captured by the Wehrmacht (Germany’s armed forces) had been executed or had died of neglect and abuse. By 1944 the Soviet death toll was at least 20 million. [181] Mass shootings Further information: The Holocaust in Russia, in Belarus, in Ukraine, in Latvia, in Lithuania, and in Estonia Further information: Collaboration in German-occupied Soviet Union, Einsatzgruppen trial, Kaunas pogrom, and War crimes of the Wehrmacht SS-Gruppenführer Otto Ohlendorf, commander of Einsatzgruppe D, pleads not guilty during the Einsatzgruppen trial, Nuremberg, 15 September 1947. He was executed in 1951. As German troops advanced, the mass shooting of “anti-German elements” was assigned, as in Poland, to the Einsatzgruppen, this time under the command of Reinhard Heydrich. [182] The point of the attacks was to destroy the local Communist Party leadership and therefore the state, including “Jews in the Party and State employment”, and any “radical elements”. [p] Cesarani writes that the killing of Jews was at this point a “subset” of these activities. [184] Einsatzgruppe A arrived in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) with Army Group North; Einsatzgruppe B in Belarus with Army Group Center; Einsatzgruppe C in the Ukraine with Army Group South; and Einsatzgruppe D went further south into Ukraine with the 11th Army. [185] Each Einsatzgruppe numbered around 6001,000 men, with a few women in administrative roles. [186] Traveling with nine German Order Police battalions and three units of the Waffen-SS, [187] the Einsatzgruppen and their local collaborators had murdered almost 500,000 people by the winter of 19411942. By the end of the war, they had killed around two million, including about 1.3 million Jews and up to a quarter of a million Roma. [188] According to Wolfram Wette, the Germany army took part in these shootings as bystanders, photographers and active shooters; to justify their troops’ involvement, army commanders would describe the victims as “hostages”, “bandits” and “partisans”. [189] Local populations helped by identifying and rounding up Jews, and by actively participating in the killing. In Lithuania, Latvia and western Ukraine, locals were deeply involved; Latvian and Lithuanian units participated in the murder of Jews in Belarus, and in the south, Ukrainians killed about 24,000 Jews. Some Ukrainians went to Poland to serve as guards in the camps. [190] Toward the Holocaust Further information: Babi Yar, Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre, Ponary massacre, and Rumbula massacre Ivanhorod Einsatzgruppen photograph: Einsatzgruppe shooting a woman and child, near Ivangorod, Ukraine, 1942[191] Typically, victims would undress and give up their valuables before lining up beside a ditch to be shot, or they would be forced to climb into the ditch, lie on a lower layer of corpses, and wait to be killed. [192] The latter was known as Sardinenpackung (“packing sardines”), a method reportedly started by SS officer Friedrich Jeckeln. [193] At first the Einsatzgruppen targeted the male Jewish intelligentsia, defined as male Jews aged 1560 who had worked for the state and in certain professions (the commandos would describe them as “Bolshevist functionaries” and similar), but from August 1941 they began to murder women and children too. [194] Christopher Browning reports that on 1 August, the SS Cavalry Brigade passed an order to its units: Explicit order by RF-SS [Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer-SS]. All Jews must be shot. Drive the female Jews into the swamps. [195] In a speech on 6 October 1943 to party leaders, Heinrich Himmler said he had ordered that women and children be shot, but Peter Longerich and Christian Gerlach write that the murder of women and children began at different times in different areas, suggesting local influence. [196] Notable massacres include the July 1941 Ponary massacre near Vilnius (Soviet Lithuania), in which Einsatgruppe B and Lithuanian collaborators shot 72,000 Jews and 8,000 non-Jewish Lithuanians and Poles. [197] In the Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre (Soviet Ukraine), nearly 24,000 Jews were killed between 27 and 30 August 1941. [181] The largest massacre was at a ravine called Babi Yar outside Kiev (also Soviet Ukraine), where 33,771 Jews were killed on 2930 September 1941. [198] Einsatzgruppe C and the Order Police, assisted by Ukrainian militia, carried out the killings, [199] while the German 6th Army helped round up and transport the victims to be shot. [200] The Germans continued to use the ravine for mass killings throughout the war; the total killed there could be as high as 100,000. [201] Historians agree that there was a “gradual radicalization” between the spring and autumn of 1941 of what Longerich calls Germany’s Judenpolitik, but they disagree about whether a decisionFührerentscheidung (Führer’s decision)to murder the European Jews was made at this point. [202][q] According to Christopher Browning, writing in 2004, most historians maintain that there was no order before the invasion to kill all the Soviet Jews. [204] Longerich wrote in 2010 that the gradual increase in brutality and numbers killed between July and September 1941 suggests there was “no particular order”; instead it was a question of “a process of increasingly radical interpretations of orders”. [205] Germany’s allies Romania Main articles: The Holocaust in Romania, Bucharest pogrom, Iai pogrom, 1941 Odessa massacre, and Dorohoi Pogrom Further information: Axis powers Bodies being pulled out of a train carrying Romanian Jews from the Iai pogrom, July 1941 According to Dan Stone, the murder of Jews in Romania was “essentially an independent undertaking”. [206] Romania implemented anti-Jewish measures in May and June 1940 as part of its efforts towards an alliance with Germany. Jews were forced from government service, pogroms were carried out, and by March 1941 all Jews had lost their jobs and had their property confiscated. [207] In June 1941 Romania joined Germany in its invasion of the Soviet Union. Thousands of Jews were killed in January and June 1941 in the Bucharest pogrom and Iai pogrom. [208] According to a 2004 report by Tuvia Friling and others, up to 14,850 Jews died during the Iai pogrom. [209] The Romanian military killed up to 25,000 Jews during the Odessa massacre between 18 October 1941 and March 1942, assisted by gendarmes and the police. [210] Mihai Antonescu, Romania’s deputy prime minister, was reported to have said it was “the most favorable moment in our history” to solve the “Jewish problem”. [211] In July 1941 he said it was time for “total ethnic purification, for a revision of national life, and for purging our race of all those elements which are foreign to its soul, which have grown like mistletoes and darken our future”. [212] Romania set up concentration camps under its control in Transnistria, reportedly extremely brutal, where 154,000170,000 Jews were deported from 1941 to 1943. [213] Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary Further information: The Holocaust in Bulgaria, in Slovakia, and in Hungary udové noviny, Slovakian propaganda office newspaper, 21 September 1941: We’ve dealt with the Jews! The strictest anti-Jewish laws are Slovakian[r] Budapest, Hungary, October 1944 Bulgaria introduced anti-Jewish measures between 1940 and 1943, which included a curfew, the requirement to wear a yellow star, restrictions on owning telephones or radios, the banning of mixed marriages (except for Jews who had converted to Christianity), and the registration of property. [214] It annexed Thrace and Macedonia, and in February 1943 agreed to a demand from Germany that it deport 20,000 Jews to the Treblinka extermination camp. All 11,000 Jews from the annexed territories were sent to their deaths, and plans were made to deport an additional 6,0008,000 Bulgarian Jews from Sofia to meet the quota. [215] When the plans became public, the Orthodox Church and many Bulgarians protested, and King Boris III canceled the deportation of Jews native to Bulgaria. [216] Instead, they were expelled to provincial areas of the country. [215] Stone writes that Slovakia, led by Roman Catholic priest Jozef Tiso (president of the Slovak State, 19391945), was “one of the most loyal of the collaborationist regimes”. It deported 7,500 Jews in 1938 on its own initiative; introduced anti-Jewish measures in 1940; and by the autumn of 1942 had deported around 60,000 Jews to ghettos and concentration camps in Poland. Another 2,396 were deported and 2,257 killed that autumn during an uprising, and 13,500 were deported between October 1944 and March 1945. [217] According to Stone, the Holocaust in Slovakia was far more than a German project, even if it was carried out in the context of a’puppet’ state. [218] Although Hungary expelled Jews who were not citizens from its newly annexed lands in 1941, it did not deport most of its Jews[219] until the German invasion of Hungary in March 1944. Between 15 May and early July 1944, 437,000 Jews were deported from Hungary, mostly to Auschwitz, where most of them were gassed; there were four transports a day, each carrying 3,000 people. [220] In Budapest in October and November 1944, the Hungarian Arrow Cross forced 50,000 Jews to march to the Austrian border as part of a deal with Germany to supply forced labor. So many died that the marches were stopped. [221] Italy, Finland, Japan Further information: The Holocaust in Italy, in Italian Libya, and in Finland See also: Jewish settlement in Japan Italy introduced some antisemitic measures, but there was less antisemitism there than in Germany, and Italian-occupied countries were generally safer for Jews than those occupied by Germany. There were no deportations of Italian Jews to Germany while Italy remained an ally. In some areas, the Italian authorities even tried to protect Jews, such as in the Croatian areas of the Balkans. But while Italian forces in Russia were not as vicious towards Jews as the Germans, they did not try to stop German atrocities either. [222] Several forced labor camps for Jews were established in Italian-controlled Libya; almost 2,600 Libyan Jews were sent to camps, where 562 died. [223] In Finland, the government was pressured in 1942 to hand over its 150200 non-Finnish Jews to Germany. After opposition from both the government and public, eight non-Finnish Jews were deported in late 1942; only one survived the war. [224] Japan had little antisemitism in its society and did not persecute Jews in most of the territories it controlled. Jews in Shanghai were confined, but despite German pressure they were not killed. [225] Concentration and labor camps Further information: Nazi concentration camps, List of Nazi concentration camps, Extermination through labor, and Holocaust trains The “stairs of death” at the Weiner Graben quarry, Mauthausen concentration camp, Austria, 1942[226] Germany first used concentration camps as places of terror and unlawful incarceration of political opponents. [227] Large numbers of Jews were not sent there until after Kristallnacht in November 1938. [228] After war broke out in 1939, new camps were established, many outside Germany in occupied Europe. [229] Most wartime prisoners of the camps were not Germans but belonged to countries under German occupation. [230] After 1942, the economic function of the camps, previously secondary to their penal and terror functions, came to the fore. Forced labor of camp prisoners became commonplace. [228] The guards became much more brutal, and the death rate increased as the guards not only beat and starved prisoners, but killed them more frequently. [230] Vernichtung durch Arbeit (“extermination through labor”) was a policy; camp inmates would literally be worked to death, or to physical exhaustion, at which point they would be gassed or shot. [231] The Germans estimated the average prisoner’s lifespan in a concentration camp at three months, as a result of lack of food and clothing, constant epidemics, and frequent punishments for the most minor transgressions. [232] The shifts were long and often involved exposure to dangerous materials. [234] In mid-1942 work camps began requiring newly arrived prisoners to be placed in quarantine for four weeks. [235] Prisoners wore colored triangles on their uniforms, the color denoting the reason for their incarceration. Red signified a political prisoner, Jehovah’s Witnesses had purple triangles, “asocials” and criminals wore black and green, and gay men wore pink. [236] Jews wore two yellow triangles, one over another to form a six-pointed star. [237] Prisoners in Auschwitz were tattooed on arrival with an identification number. [238] Final Solution Pearl Harbor, Germany declares war on America Further information: Reich Chancellery meeting of 12 December 1941 11 December 1941: Adolf Hitler speaking at the Kroll Opera House to Reichstag members about war in the Pacific. The following day, the United States declared war on Japan, and on 11 December, Germany declared war on the United States. [239] According to Deborah Dwork and Robert Jan van Pelt, Hitler had trusted American Jews, whom he assumed were all powerful, to keep the United States out of the war in the interests of German Jews. When America declared war, he blamed the Jews. [240] Nearly three years earlier, on 30 January 1939, Hitler had told the Reichstag: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will be not the Bolshevising of the earth, and thus a victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe! “[241] In the view of Christian Gerlach, Hitler “announced his decision in principle to annihilate the Jews on or around 12 December 1941, one day after his declaration of war. On that day, Hitler gave a speech in his private apartment at the Reich Chancellery to senior Nazi Party leaders: the Reichsleiter, the most senior, and the Gauleiter, the regional leaders. [242] The following day, Joseph Goebbels, the Reich Minister of Propaganda, noted in his diary: Regarding the Jewish question, the Führer is determined to clear the table. He warned the Jews that if they were to cause another world war, it would lead to their destruction. Those were not empty words. Now the world war has come. The destruction of the Jews must be its necessary consequence. We cannot be sentimental about it. [t] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Adolf Hitler’s Declaration of War against the United States Christopher Browning argues that Hitler gave no order during the Reich Chancellery meeting but did make clear that he had intended his 1939 warning to the Jews to be taken literally, and he signaled to party leaders that they could give appropriate orders to others. [244] Peter Longerich interprets Hitler’s speech to the party leaders as an appeal to radicalize a policy that was already being executed. [245] According to Gerlach, an unidentified former German Sicherheitsdienst officer wrote in a report in 1944, after defecting to Switzerland: After America entered the war, the annihilation (Ausrottung) of all European Jews was initiated on the Führer’s order. “[246] Four days after Hitler’s meeting with party leaders, Hans Frank, Governor-General of the General Government area of occupied Poland, who was at the meeting, spoke to district governors: “We must put an end to the Jews… I will in principle proceed only on the assumption that they will disappear. Browning interprets this as a meeting to discuss how to justify and speak about the killing. [250][251] The meeting had been scheduled for 9 December 1941, and invitations had been sent on 29 November, but it had been postponed indefinitely. A month later, invitations were sent out again, this time for 20 January. [252] The 15 men present at Wannsee included Adolf Eichmann (head of Jewish affairs for the RSHA), Heinrich Müller (head of the Gestapo), and other SS and party leaders and department heads. [w] Browning writes that eight of the 15 had doctorates: Thus it was not a dimwitted crowd unable to grasp what was going to be said to them. [254] Thirty copies of the minutes, known as the Wannsee Protocol, were made. 16 was found by American prosecutors in March 1947 in a German Foreign Office folder. [255] Written by Eichmann and stamped “Top Secret”, the minutes were written in “euphemistic language” on Heydrich’s instructions, according to Eichmann’s later testimony. [245] Discussing plans for a “final solution to the Jewish question” (“Endlösung der Judenfrage”), and a “final solution to the Jewish question in Europe” (“Endlösung der europäischen Judenfrage”), [250] the conference was held to share information and responsibility, coordinate efforts and policies (“Parallelisierung der Linienführung”), and ensure that authority rested with Heydrich. There was also discussion about whether to include the German Mischlinge (half-Jews). [256] Heydrich told the meeting: Another possible solution of the problem has now taken the place of emigration, i. The evacuation of the Jews to the East, provided that the Fuehrer gives the appropriate approval in advance. [250] He continued: Under proper guidance, in the course of the Final Solution, the Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East. Able-bodied Jews, separated according to sex, will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads, in the course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes. The possible final remnant will, since it will undoubtedly consist of the most resistant portion, have to be treated accordingly because it is the product of natural selection and would, if released, act as the seed of a new Jewish revival. See the experience of history. In the course of the practical execution of the Final Solution, Europe will be combed through from west to east. Germany proper, including the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, will have to be handled first due to the housing problem and additional social and political necessities. The evacuated Jews will first be sent, group by group, to so-called transit ghettos, from which they will be transported to the East. [250] These evacuations were regarded as provisional or “temporary solutions” (“Ausweichmöglichkeiten”). [257][x] The final solution would encompass the 11 million Jews living not only in territories controlled by Germany, but elsewhere in Europe and adjacent territories, such as Britain, Ireland, Switzerland, Turkey, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, and Hungary, “dependent on military developments”. [257] There was little doubt what the final solution was, writes Longerich: the Jews were to be annihilated by a combination of forced labour and mass murder. [259] Extermination camps Main article: Extermination camp At the end of 1941 in occupied Poland, the Germans began building additional camps or expanding existing ones. Auschwitz, for example, was expanded in October 1941 by building Auschwitz II-Birkenau a few kilometers away. [4] By the spring or summer of 1942, gas chambers had been installed in these new facilities, except for Chemno, which used gas vans. Camp Location (occupied Poland) Deaths Gas chambers Gas vans Construction began Mass gassing began Source (Yad Vashem) Auschwitz II Brzezinka 1,082,000 (all Auschwitz camps; includes 960,000 Jews)[y] 4[z] October 1941 (built as POW camp)[263] c. 20 March 1942[264][aa] [265] Beec Beec 600,000[266] 1 November 1941[267] 17 March 1942[267] [266] Chemno Chemno nad Nerem 320,000[268] 8 December 1941[269] [268] Majdanek Lublin 78,000[270] 7 October 1941 (built as POW camp)[271] October 1942[272] [273] Sobibór Sobibór 250,000[274] February 1942[275] May 1942[275] [274] Treblinka Treblinka 870,000[276] May 1942[277] 23 July 1942[277] [276] Total 3,218,000 Other camps sometimes described as extermination camps include Maly Trostinets near Minsk in the occupied Soviet Union, where 65,000 are thought to have died, mostly by shooting but also in gas vans;[278] Mauthausen in Austria;[279] Stutthof, near Gdask, Poland;[280] and Sachsenhausen and Ravensbrück in Germany. The camps in Austria, Germany and Poland all had gas chambers to kill inmates deemed unable to work. [281] Gas vans Main article: Gas van Chemno, with gas vans only, had its roots in the Aktion T4 euthanasia program. [282] In December 1939 and January 1940, gas vans equipped with gas cylinders and a sealed compartment had been used to kill the handicapped in occupied Poland. [283] As the mass shootings continued in Russia, Himmler and his subordinates in the field feared that the murders were causing psychological problems for the SS, [284] and began searching for more efficient methods. In December 1941, similar vans, using exhaust fumes rather than bottled gas, were introduced into the camp at Chemno, [267] Victims were asphyxiated while being driven to prepared burial pits in the nearby forests. [285] The vans were also used in the occupied Soviet Union, for example in smaller clearing actions in the Minsk ghetto, [286] and in Yugoslavia. [287] Apparently, as with the mass shootings, the vans caused emotional problems for the operators, and the small number of victims the vans could handle made them ineffective. [288] Gas chambers Main article: Gas chamber Further information: Sonderaktion 1005 Auschwitz II gatehouse, shot from inside the camp; the trains delivered victims very close to the gas chambers. Women on their way to the gas chamber, near Crematorium V, Auschwitz II, August 1944. The Polish resistance reportedly smuggled the film, known as the Sonderkommando photographs, out of the camp in a toothpaste tube. [289] Christian Gerlach writes that over three million Jews were murdered in 1942, the year that “marked the peak” of the mass murder. [290] At least 1.4 million of these were in the General Government area of Poland. [292] Almost all arrivals at Beec, Sobibór and Treblinka were sent directly to the gas chambers, [293] with individuals occasionally selected to replace dead workers. [294] At Auschwitz, about 20 percent of Jews were selected to work. [295] Those selected for death at all camps were told to undress and hand their valuables to camp workers. [40] They were then herded naked into the gas chambers. To prevent panic, they were told the gas chambers were showers or delousing chambers. [296] At Auschwitz, after the chambers were filled, the doors were shut and pellets of Zyklon-B were dropped into the chambers through vents, [297] releasing toxic prussic acid. [298] Those inside died within 20 minutes; the speed of death depended on how close the inmate was standing to a gas vent, according to the commandant Rudolf Höss, who estimated that about one-third of the victims died immediately. [299] Johann Kremer, an SS doctor who oversaw the gassings, testified that: Shouting and screaming of the victims could be heard through the opening and it was clear that they fought for their lives. [300] The gas was then pumped out, and the Sonderkommandowork groups of mostly Jewish prisonerscarried out the bodies, extracted gold fillings, cut off women’s hair, and removed jewelry, artificial limbs and glasses. [301] At Auschwitz, the bodies were at first buried in deep pits and covered with lime, but between September and November 1942, on the orders of Himmler, 100,000 bodies were dug up and burned. In early 1943, new gas chambers and crematoria were built to accommodate the numbers. [302] Beec, Sobibór and Treblinka became known as the Operation Reinhard camps, named after the German plan to murder the Jews in the General Government area of occupied Poland. [303] Between March 1942 and November 1943, around 1,526,500 Jews were gassed in these three camps in gas chambers using carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes of stationary diesel engines. [4] Gold fillings were pulled from the corpses before burial, but unlike in Auschwitz the women’s hair was cut before death. At Treblinka, to calm the victims, the arrival platform was made to look like a train station, complete with fake clock. [304] Most of the victims at these three camps were buried in pits at first. From mid-1942, as part of Sonderaktion 1005, prisoners at Auschwitz, Chelmno, Beec, Sobibór, and Treblinka were forced to exhume and burn bodies that had been buried, in part to hide the evidence, and in part because of the terrible smell pervading the camps and a fear that the drinking water would become polluted. [305] The corpses700,000 in Treblinkawere burned on wood in open fire pits and the remaining bones crushed into powder. [306] Jewish resistance Main articles: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe, Jewish Combat Organization, Mia 18, Jewish Military Union, and Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye Stroop Report photograph: captured insurgents from the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943; the woman on the right is Hasia Szylgold-Szpiro. [307] Warsaw Ghetto boy: another Stroop report image of the aftermath of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising; the SS man on the right with the gun is Josef Blösche. There was almost no resistance in the ghettos in Poland until the end of 1942. [308] Raul Hilberg accounted for this by evoking the history of Jewish persecution: compliance might avoid inflaming the situation until the onslaught abated. [309] Timothy Snyder noted that it was only during the three months after the deportations of JulySeptember 1942 that agreement on the need for armed resistance was reached. [310] Several resistance groups were formed, such as the Jewish Combat Organization (OB) and Jewish Military Union (ZW) in the Warsaw Ghetto and the United Partisan Organization in Vilna. [311] Over 100 revolts and uprisings occurred in at least 19 ghettos and elsewhere in Eastern Europe. The best known is the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in April 1943, when the Germans arrived to send the remaining inhabitants to extermination camps. [312] Around 1,000 poorly armed fighters held the SS at bay for four weeks. [313] Polish and Jewish accounts stated that hundreds or thousands of Germans had been killed, [314] while the Germans reported 16 dead. [315] The Germans said that 14,000 Jews had been killed7000 during the fighting and 7000 sent to Treblinka[316]and between 53,000[317] and 56,000 deported. [315] According to Gwardia Ludowa, a Polish resistance newspaper, in May 1943: From behind the screen of smoke and fire, in which the ranks of fighting Jewish partisans are dying, the legend of the exceptional fighting qualities of the Germans is being undermined. The fighting Jews have won for us what is most important: the truth about the weakness of the Germans. [318] During a revolt in Treblinka on 2 August 1943, inmates killed five or six guards and set fire to camp buildings; several managed to escape. [319] In the Biaystok Ghetto on 16 August, Jewish insurgents fought for five days when the Germans announced mass deportations. [320] On 14 October, Jewish prisoners in Sobibór attempted an escape, killing 11 SS officers, as well as two or three Ukrainian and Volksdeutsche guards. According to Yitzhak Arad, this was the highest number of SS officers killed in a single revolt. [321] Around 300 inmates escaped (out of 600 in the main camp), but 100 were recaptured and shot. [322] On 7 October 1944, 300 Jewish members, mostly Greek or Hungarian, of the Sonderkommando at Auschwitz learned they were about to be killed, and staged an uprising, blowing up crematorium IV. [323] Three SS officers were killed. [324] The Sonderkommando at crematorium II threw their Oberkapo into an oven when they heard the commotion, believing that a camp uprising had begun. [325] By the time the SS had regained control, 451 members of the Sonderkommando were dead; 212 survived. [326] Estimates of Jewish participation in partisan units throughout Europe range from 20,000 to 100,000. [327] In the occupied Polish and Soviet territories, thousands of Jews fled into the swamps or forests and joined the partisans, [328] although the partisan movements did not always welcome them. [329] An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 joined the Soviet partisan movement. [330] One of the famous Jewish groups was the Bielski partisans in Belarus, led by the Bielski brothers. [328] Jews also joined Polish forces, including the Home Army. According to Timothy Snyder, more Jews fought in the Warsaw Uprising of August 1944 than in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April 1943. “[331][ab] Polish resistance, flow of information about the mass murder Further information: Polish resistance movement in World War II and Home Army See also: The Black Book of Polish Jewry, The Black Book of Poland, Raczyski’s Note, Pilecki’s Report, Auschwitz Protocols, The New York Times § World War II, and Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Captain Witold Pilecki The Polish government-in-exile in London learned about Auschwitz from the Polish leadership in Warsaw, who from late 1940 “received a continual flow of information about the camp, according to historian Michael Fleming. [337] This was in large measure thanks to Captain Witold Pilecki of the Polish Home Army, who allowed himself to be arrested in September 1940 and sent there. An inmate until he escaped in April 1943, his mission was to set up a resistance movement (ZOW), prepare to take over the camp, and smuggle out information about it. [338] On 6 January 1942, the Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs, Vyacheslav Molotov, sent out diplomatic notes about German atrocities. The notes were based on reports about mass graves and bodies surfacing from pits and quarries in areas the Red Army had liberated, as well as witness reports from German-occupied areas. [339] The following month, Szlama Ber Winer escaped from the Chemno concentration camp in Poland and passed information about it to the Oneg Shabbat group in the Warsaw Ghetto. His report, known by his pseudonym as the Grojanowski Report, had reached London by June 1942. [268][340] Also in 1942, Jan Karski sent information to the Allies after being smuggled into the Warsaw Ghetto twice. [341] By late July or early August 1942, Polish leaders in Warsaw had learned about the mass killing of Jews in Auschwitz, according to Fleming. [337][ac] The Polish Interior Ministry prepared a report, Sprawozdanie 6/42, [343] which said at the end: There are different methods of execution. People are shot by firing squads, killed by an “air hammer” /Hammerluft/, and poisoned by gas in special gas chambers. Prisoners condemned to death by the Gestapo are murdered by the first two methods. The third method, the gas chamber, is employed for those who are ill or incapable of work and those who have been brought in transports especially for the purpose /Soviet prisoners of war, and, recently Jews/. [337] The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland by the Polish government-in-exile, addressed to the United Nations, 10 December 1942 Sprawozdanie 6/42 was sent to Polish officials in London by courier and had reached them by 12 November 1942, where it was translated into English and added to another, “Report on Conditions in Poland”, dated 27 November. Fleming writes that the latter was sent to the Polish Embassy in the United States. [344] On 10 December 1942, the Polish Foreign Affairs Minister, Edward Raczyski, addressed the fledgling United Nations on the killings; the address was distributed with the title The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland. He told them about the use of poison gas; about Treblinka, Beec and Sobibór; that the Polish underground had referred to them as extermination camps; and that tens of thousands of Jews had been killed in Beec in March and April 1942. [345] One in three Jews in Poland were already dead, he estimated, from a population of 3,130,000. [346] Raczyski’s address was covered by the New York Times and The Times of London. Winston Churchill received it, and Anthony Eden presented it to the British cabinet. On 17 December 1942, 11 Allies issued the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations condemning the “bestial policy of cold-blooded extermination”. [347][348] The British and American governments were reluctant to publicize the intelligence they had received. A BBC Hungarian Service memo, written by Carlile Macartney, a BBC broadcaster and senior Foreign Office adviser on Hungary, stated in 1942: We shouldn’t mention the Jews at all. The British government’s view was that the Hungarian people’s antisemitism would make them distrust the Allies if their broadcasts focused on the Jews. [349] The US government similarly feared turning the war into one about the Jews; antisemitism and isolationism were common in the US before its entry into the war. [350] Although governments and the German public appear to have understood what was happening, it seems the Jews themselves did not. According to Saul Friedländer, [t]estimonies left by Jews from all over occupied Europe indicate that, in contradistinction to vast segments of surrounding society, the victims did not understand what was ultimately in store for them. In Western Europe, he writes, Jewish communities seem to have failed to piece the information together, while in Eastern Europe, they could not accept that the stories they had heard from elsewhere would end up applying to them too. [351] Climax, Holocaust in Hungary Further information: The Holocaust in Hungary, Hungary in World War II, and Operation Margarethe Jews from Subcarpathian Rus on the selection ramp at Auschwitz II, c. Women and children are lined up on one side, men on the other, waiting for the SS to determine who was fit for work. About 20 percent at Auschwitz were selected for work and the rest gassed. [353] The only exception was the Lodz Ghetto, which was not liquidated until mid-1944. [354] About 42,000 Jews in the General Government were shot during Operation Harvest Festival (Aktion Erntefest) on 34 November 1943. [357] Army leaders and economic managers complained about this diversion of resources and the killing of skilled Jewish workers, [358] but Nazi leaders rated ideological imperatives above economic considerations. [359] By 1943 it was evident to the armed forces leadership that Germany was losing the war. [360] The mass murder continued nevertheless, reaching a “frenetic” pace in 1944[361] when Auschwitz gassed nearly 500,000 people. [362] On 19 March 1944, Hitler ordered the military occupation of Hungary and dispatched Adolf Eichmann to Budapest to supervise the deportation of the country’s Jews. [363] From 22 March Jews were required to wear the yellow star; were forbidden from owning cars, bicycles, radios or telephones; and were later forced into ghettos. [364] Between 15 May and 9 July, 437,000 Jews were deported from Hungary to Auschwitz II-Birkenau, almost all sent directly to the gas chambers. [367] The British leaked the proposal to the press; The Times called it “a new level of fantasy and self-deception”. [368] By mid-1944 Jewish communities within easy reach of the Nazi regime had largely been exterminated. [369] Death marches Main article: Death marches (Holocaust) As the Soviet armed forces advanced, the SS closed down the camps in eastern Poland and made efforts to conceal what had happened. The gas chambers were dismantled, the crematoria dynamited, and the mass graves dug up and corpses cremated. [370] From January to April 1945, the SS sent inmates westward on “death marches” to camps in Germany and Austria. [371][372] In January 1945, the Germans held records of 714,000 inmates in concentration camps; by May, 250,000 (35 percent) had died during death marches. Some went by truck or wagons; others were marched the entire distance to the new camp. Those who lagged behind or fell were shot. [374] Liberation Main articles: Death of Adolf Hitler, German Instrument of Surrender, Victory in Europe Day, and End of World War II in Europe Fritz Klein, the camp doctor, standing in a mass grave at Bergen-Belsen after the camp’s liberation by the British 11th Armoured Division, April 1945 The first major camp to be encountered by Allied troops, Majdanek, was discovered by the advancing Soviets, along with its gas chambers, on 25 July 1944. [375] Treblinka, Sobibór, and Beec were never liberated, but were destroyed by the Germans in 1943. [376] On 17 January 1945, 58,000 Auschwitz inmates were sent on a death march westwards;[377] when the camp was liberated by the Soviets on 27 January, they found just 7,000 inmates in the three main camps and 500 in subcamps. [378] Buchenwald was liberated by the Americans on 11 April;[379] Bergen-Belsen by the British on 15 April;[380] Dachau by the Americans on 29 April;[381] Ravensbrück by the Soviets on 30 April;[382] and Mauthausen by the Americans on 5 May. [383] The Red Cross took control of Theresienstadt on 3 May, days before the Soviets arrived. [384] The British 11th Armoured Division found around 60,000 prisoners (90 percent Jews) when they liberated Bergen-Belsen, [380][385] as well as 13,000 unburied corpses; another 10,000 people died from typhus or malnutrition over the following weeks. [386] The BBC’s war correspondent Richard Dimbleby described the scenes that greeted him and the British Army at Belsen, in a report so graphic the BBC declined to broadcast it for four days, and did so, on 19 April, only after Dimbleby threatened to resign. [387] He said he had “never seen British soldiers so moved to cold fury”:[388] Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. You could not see which was which. The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them… Babies had been born here, tiny wizened things that could not live. A mother, driven mad, screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child, and thrust the tiny mite into his arms. He opened the bundle and found the baby had been dead for days. This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life. Richard Dimbleby, 15 April 1945[389] Death toll See also: Jewish population by country Country Death toll of Jews[ae] Albania 591 Austria 65,459 Baltic states 272,000 Belgium 28,518 Bulgaria 11,393 Croatia 32,000 Czechoslovakia 143,000 Denmark 116 France 76,134 Germany 165,000 Greece 59,195 Hungary 502,000 Italy 6,513 Luxembourg 1,200 Netherlands 102,000 Norway 758 Poland 2,100,000 Romania 220,000 Serbia 10,700 Soviet Union 2,100,000 Total 5,896,577 The Jews killed represented around one third of world Jewry[394] and about two-thirds of European Jewry, based on a pre-war estimate of 9.7 million Jews in Europe. [395] According to the Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, “[a]ll the serious research” confirms that between five and six million Jews died. [396] Early postwar calculations were 4.24.5 million from Gerald Reitlinger;[397] 5.1 million from Raul Hilberg; and 5.95 million from Jacob Lestschinsky. [398] In 1990 Yehuda Bauer and Robert Rozett estimated 5.595.86 million, [399] and in 1991 Wolfgang Benz suggested 5.29 to just over 6 million. [400][af] The figures include over one million children. [401] Much of the uncertainty stems from the lack of a reliable figure for the number of Jews in Europe in 1939, border changes that make double-counting of victims difficult to avoid, lack of accurate records from the perpetrators, and uncertainty about whether to include post-liberation deaths caused by the persecution. [397] The death camps in occupied Poland accounted for half the Jews killed. At Auschwitz the Jewish death toll was 960,000;[402] Treblinka 870,000;[276] Beec 600,000;[266] Chemno 320,000;[268] Sobibór 250,000;[274] and Majdanek 79,000. [273] Death rates were heavily dependent on the survival of European states willing to protect their Jewish citizens. [403] In countries allied to Germany, the control over Jewish citizens was sometimes seen as a matter of sovereignty; the continuous presence of state institutions prevented the Jewish communities’ complete destruction. [403] In occupied countries, the survival of the state was likewise correlated with lower Jewish death rates: 75 percent of Jews died in the Netherlands, as did 99 percent of Jews who were in Estonia when the Germans arrivedthe Nazis declared Estonia Judenfrei (“free of Jews”) in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conferencewhile 75 percent survived in France and 99 percent in Denmark. [404] The survival of Jews in countries where states survived demonstrates, writes Christian Gerlach, “that there were limits to German power” and that the influence of non-Germansgovernments and otherswas “crucial”. [47] Jews who lived where pre-war statehood was destroyed (Poland and the Baltic states) or displaced (western USSR) were at the mercy of both German power and sometimes hostile local populations. Almost all Jews living in German-occupied Poland, Baltic states and the USSR were killed, with a 5 percent chance of survival on average. [403] Of Poland’s 3.3 million Jews, about 90 percent were killed. [405] Other victims of Nazi persecution during the Holocaust era Group Estimate killed during the Holocaust era (19331945) Source Soviet civilians excl. 1.3 million Jews 5.7 million [8] Soviet POWs incl. 50,000 Jewish soldiers 3 million [8] Non-Jewish Poles c. 1.8 million [8][406] Serb civilians 312,000 [8] Handicapped Up to 250,000 [8] Roma 196,000220,000 [8] Jehovah’s Witnesses c. 1,900 [8][407] Criminals and “asocials” at least 70,000 [8] Gay men Hundreds; unknown [8][408] Political opponents, resistance Unknown [8] Soviet civilians and POWs Main articles: German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II, Hunger Plan, and Generalplan Ost The Nazis regarded the Slavs as Untermenschen (subhuman). [24] German troops destroyed villages throughout the Soviet Union, [409] rounded up civilians for forced labor in Germany, and caused famine by taking foodstuffs. [410] In Belarus, Germany imposed a regime that deported 380,000 people for slave labor and killed hundreds of thousands. Over 600 villages had their populations killed and at least 5,295 Belarusian settlements were destroyed. According to Timothy Snyder, of nine million people in Soviet Belarus in 1941, around 1.6 million were killed by Germans away from the battlefield. [411] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates that 3.3 million of 5.7 million Soviet POWs died in German custody. [412] The death rates decreased as the POWs were needed to help the German war effort; by 1943, half a million had been deployed as slave labor. [413] Non-Jewish Poles Main article: Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Hitler made clear that Polish workers were to be kept in what Robert Gellately called a “permanent condition of inferiority”. [414] In a memorandum to Hitler dated 25 May 1940, “A Few Thoughts on the Treatment of the Ethnically Alien Population in the East”, Himmler stated that it was in German interests to foster divisions between the ethnic groups in the East. He wanted to restrict non-Germans in the conquered territories to an elementary-school education that would teach them how to write their names, count up to 500, work hard, and obey Germans. [415] The Polish political class became the target of a campaign of murder (Intelligenzaktion and AB-Aktion). [416] Between 1.8 and 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish citizens were killed by Germans during the war; about four-fifths were ethnic Poles and the rest Ukrainians and Belarusians. [406] At least 200,000 died in concentration camps, around 146,000 in Auschwitz. Others died in massacres or in uprisings such as the Warsaw Uprising, where 120,000200,000 were killed. [417] Roma Main articles: Poajmos and Auschwitz#Gypsy family camp Romani people being deported from Asperg, Germany, 22 May 1940 Germany and its allies killed up to 220,000 Roma, around 25 percent of the community in Europe, [418] in what the Romani people call the Poajmos. [419] Robert Ritter, head of the Rassenhygienische und Bevolkerungsbiologische Forschungsstelle called them “a peculiar form of the human species who are incapable of development and came about by mutation”. [420] In May 1942 they were placed under similar laws to the Jews, and in December Himmler ordered that they be sent to Auschwitz, unless they had served in the Wehrmacht. [421] He adjusted the order on 15 November 1943 to allow “sedentary Gypsies and part-Gypsies” in the occupied Soviet areas to be viewed as citizens. [422] In Belgium, France and the Netherlands, the Roma were subject to restrictions on movement and confinement to collection camps, [423] while in Eastern Europe they were sent to concentration camps, where large numbers were murdered. [424] In the camps, they were usually counted among the asocials and required to wear brown or black triangles on their prison clothes. [425] Political and religious opponents Main articles: German resistance to Nazism, Religion in Nazi Germany, and Persecution of Jehovah’s Witnesses in Nazi Germany German communists, socialists and trade unionists were among the earliest opponents of the Nazis[426] and among the first to be sent to concentration camps. [427] Nacht und Nebel (“Night and Fog”), a directive issued by Hitler on 7 December 1941, resulted in the disappearance, torture and death of political activists throughout German-occupied Europe; the courts had sentenced 1,793 people to death by April 1944, according to Jack Fischel. [428] Because they refused to pledge allegiance to the Nazi party or serve in the military, Jehovah’s Witnesses were sent to concentration camps, where they were identified by purple triangles and given the option of renouncing their faith and submitting to the state’s authority. [429] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates that between 2,700 and 3,300 were sent to the camps, where 1,400 died. [407] According to German historian Detlef Garbe, no other religious movement resisted the pressure to conform to National Socialism with comparable unanimity and steadfastness. [430] Gay men, Afro-Germans Main articles: Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany Around 100,000 gay men were arrested in Germany and 50,000 jailed between 1933 and 1945; 5,00015,000 are thought to have been sent to concentration camps, where they were identified by a pink triangle on their camp clothes. It is not known how many died. [408] Hundreds were castrated, sometimes “voluntarily” to avoid criminal sentences. [431] In 1936 Himmler created the Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion. [432] The police closed gay bars and shut down gay publications. [408] Lesbians were left relatively unaffected; the Nazis saw them as “asocials”, rather than sexual deviants. [433] There were 5,00025,000 Afro-Germans in Germany when the Nazis came to power. [434] Although blacks in Germany and German-occupied Europe were subjected to incarceration, sterilization and murder, there was no program to kill them as a group. [435] Aftermath Main articles: Aftermath of the Holocaust, Responsibility for the Holocaust, List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe, and Stunde Null Trials Main articles: Nuremberg trials and Subsequent Nuremberg trials Further information: Dachau trials, Auschwitz trial, Majdanek trials, Trial of Adolf Eichmann, Belzec trial, Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, Sobibor trial, Treblinka trials, and Category:Holocaust trials Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials, 19451946. (Front row, left to right): Hermann Göring, Rudolf Heß, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel (Second row, left to right): Karl Dönitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held after the war by the Allies in Nuremberg, Germany, to prosecute the German leadership. The first was the 19451946 trial of 22 political and military leaders before the International Military Tribunal. [436] Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels had committed suicide months earlier. [437] The prosecution entered indictments against 24 men (two were dropped before the end of the trial)[ag] and seven organizations: the Reich Cabinet, Schutzstaffel (SS), Sicherheitsdienst (SD), Gestapo, Sturmabteilung (SA), and the “General Staff and High Command”. [438] The indictments were for participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace; planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace; war crimes; and crimes against humanity. The tribunal passed judgements ranging from acquittal to death by hanging. [438] Eleven defendants were executed, including Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Rosenberg, and Alfred Jodl. Ribbentrop, the judgement declared, “played an important part in Hitler’s’final solution of the Jewish question'”. [439] The subsequent Nuremberg trials, 19461949, tried another 185 defendants. [440] West Germany initially tried few ex-Nazis, but after the 1958 Ulm Einsatzkommando trial, the government set up a dedicated agency. [441] Other trials of Nazis and collaborators took place in Western and Eastern Europe. In 1960 Mossad agents captured Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel to stand trial on 15 indictments, including war crimes, crimes against humanity, and crimes against the Jewish people. He was convicted in December 1961 and executed in June 1962. Eichmann’s trial and death revived interest in war criminals and the Holocaust in general. Companies such as BMW, Deutsche Bank, Ford, Opel, Siemens, and Volkswagen faced lawsuits for their use of forced labor during the war. [443] In response, Germany set up the “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” Foundation in 2000, which paid 4.45 billion to former slave laborers (up to 7,670 each). [445] In 2013 Germany agreed to provide 772 million to fund nursing care, social services, and medication for 56,000 Holocaust survivors around the world. [447] Historikerstreit, uniqueness question Further information: Bitburg controversy and Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Berlin, 2008 In the early decades of Holocaust studies, scholars approached the Holocaust as a genocide unique in its reach and specificity; Nora Levin called the “world of Auschwitz” a new planet. “[448] This was questioned in the 1980s during the West German Historikerstreit (“historians’ dispute), an attempt to re-position the Holocaust within German historiography. [449][ah] Ernst Nolte triggered the Historikerstreit in June 1986 with an article in the conservative newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: “The past that will not pass: A speech that could be written but no longer delivered”. [451][452][ai] Rather than being studied as an historical event, the Nazi era was suspended like a sword over Germany’s present, he wrote. He compared “the guilt of the Germans” to the Nazi idea of “the guilt of the Jews”, and argued that the focus on the Final Solution overlooked the Nazi’s euthanasia program and treatment of Soviet POWs, as well as post-war issues such as the Vietnam War and SovietAfghan War. Comparing Auschwitz to the Gulag, he suggested that the Holocaust was a response to Hitler’s fear of the Soviet Union: Did the Gulag Archipelago not precede Auschwitz? Was the Bolshevik murder of an entire class not the logical and factual prius of the’racial murder’ of National Socialism? Was Auschwitz perhaps rooted in a past that would not pass? “[aj] Hall of Names, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 2011 Nolte’s arguments were viewed as an attempt to normalize the Holocaust; one of the debate’s key questions, according to historian Ernst Piper, was whether history should “historicize” or “moralize. [456][ak] In September 1986 in the left-leaning Die Zeit, Eberhard Jäckel responded that never before had a state, with the authority of its leader, decided and announced that a specific group of humans, including the elderly, women, children and infants, would be killed as quickly as possible, then carried out this resolution using every possible means of state power. “[i] Despite the criticism of Nolte, the Historikerstreit put “the question of comparison on the agenda, according to Dan Stone in 2010. [449] He argued that the idea of the Holocaust as unique was overtaken by attempts to place it within the context of Stalinism, ethnic cleansing, and the Nazis’ intentions for post-war “demographic reordering”, particularly the Generalplan Ost, the plan to kill tens of millions of Slavs to create living space for Germans. [458] Jäckel’s position continued nevertheless to inform the views of many specialists. Evans argued in 2015: Thus although the Nazi “Final Solution” was one genocide among many, it had features that made it stand out from all the rest as well. Unlike all the others it was bounded neither by space nor by time. It was launched not against a local or regional obstacle, but at a world-enemy seen as operating on a global scale. It was bound to an even larger plan of racial reordering and reconstruction involving further genocidal killing on an almost unimaginable scale, aimed, however, at clearing the way in a particular region Eastern Europe for a further struggle against the Jews and those the Nazis regarded as their puppets. It was set in motion by ideologues who saw world history in racial terms. It was, in part, carried out by industrial methods. These things all make it unique. Richard Evans, Was the’Final Solution’ Unique? , The Third Reich in History and Memory. [459] Awareness In September 2018, an online CNNComRes poll of 7,092 adults in seven European countriesAustria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Poland, and Swedenfound that one in 20 had never heard of the Holocaust. The figure included one in five people in France aged 1834. Four in 10 Austrians said they knew “just a little” about it; 12 percent of young people there said they had never heard of it. [460] A 2018 survey in the United States found that 22 percent of 1,350 adults said they had never heard of it, while 41 percent of Americans and 66 percent of millennials did not know what Auschwitz was. [461][462] In 2019, a survey of 1,100 Canadians found that 49 percent could not name any of the concentration camps. The item “1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA” is in sale since Wednesday, November 11, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Religion & Spirituality\Judaism\Books”. The seller is “judaica-bookstore” and is located in TEL AVIV. This item can be shipped worldwide.
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1948 Holocaust JEWISH ART BOOK Yizkor JUDAICA Israel HEBREW Drawings DIASPORA