LILIEN fans and ART NOUVEAU – JUGENDSTIL collectors would much enjoy this EXTREMELY RARE exceptional FINE lot of BOOKS ” DIE BUCHER DER BIBEL”, Being Lilien ARTISTIC interpretation for the JEWISH BIBLE which he created to some of the BIBLE BOOKS. The PROJECT of accompany all the BIBLE BOOKS was supposed to include SIX VOLUMES, But unfortunately LILIEN was able to complete only 3 VOLUMES , Numbers 1, 6 , 7 before his death. The 3 HUGE Jewish BIBLE VOLUMES are loaded with LILIEN Art Nouveau – Jugendtil illustrations and DECORATIONS. LILIEN interpretation to the BIBLICAL STORIES, NARATIVES and FIGURES was full of PASSION , DESIRE and HUMAN BEAUTY and thus the erotic illustrations are quite EROTIC with many male and female handsome NUDE images. Copies of this exquisite PIECE OF ART are usualy being offered one by one and very seldomly as one complete homogenic set of ALL THREE VOLUMES together. Original Illustrated and decorated (By LILIEN) cloth canvas covers , Strongly embossed , Designed in black and gold. 10″x 8.5″. 328 pp + 304 pp + 554 p. Overall 1186 throughout illustrated and decorated PP. Clean except for faint foxing to some of the pages. All the front and back covers are clean , Intact and in excellent condition. Two of the original spines suffer from wear at their upper and bottom ends. One spine out of the 3 is redone/replaced by a matching cloth. (Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images) Books will be sent inside a protective packaging. AUTHENTICITY : These are the ORIGINAL vintage 1923 EDITION of the LILIEN BIBLE (Dated) , NOT reproductions or reprints , They come with life long GUARANTEE for their AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY. Will be sent protected inside a protective rigid packaging. He is sometimes called the first Zionist artist. Biography Ephraim Moses Lilien (Maurycy Lilien) was born in Drohobycz (Galicia). He studied under Polish painter Jan Matejko from 1890 to 1892. As a member of the Zionist Movement, Lilien traveled to Palestine several times between 1906 and 1918. He accompanied Boris Schatz to Jerusalem to help establish the Bezalel Art School. Artistic career Lilien is known for his famous photographic portrait of Theodor Herzl. He often used Herzl as a model, considering his features a perfect representation of the New Jew.  In 1896, he received an award for photography from the avantgarde magazine Jugend. Lilien illustrated several books. In 1923, an exhibition of his work opened in New York. Lilien’s illustrated books include Juda (1900), Biblically-themes poetry by Lilien’s Christian friend, Börries Freiherr von Münchausen, and Lieder des Ghetto (Songs of the Ghetto) (1903), Yiddish poems by Morris Rosenfeld translated into German. Death and commemoration Lilien died in Badenweiler, Germany in 1925. A street in the Nayot neighborhood of Jerusalem is named for him. Born 1874 in Drohobycz (Galicia) – died 1925 in Badenweiler. Lilien was one of the most influential jewish artists of his time. In 1896 he received an award for photography from the avantguarde magazine “Jugend”. He was a member of the zionist movement and undertook several journeys to Palestine and the middle east between 1906 and 1918. Lilien illustrated several books, his bible illustrations have become most famous. His first exhibition in USA took place in 1923 in New York. His works are owned by renowned national and international museums and private collections worldwide. Although he was raised Orthodox in Galicia, he sought a secular education and settled in Germany in 1899 were he became involved in the movement to restore Jewish statehood. He was the master of the Jewish motif and fashioned a national Jewish art by blending traditional Jewish symbols within contemporary styles, such as the Jugendstil (German Art Nouveau). Lilien introduced ground breaking efforts in book art, which were illustrated methodically in India ink. His first endeavor was Juda , a book of biblical poetry by Christian friend, Börries Freiherr von Münchausen. It was followed by Lieder des Ghetto (Songs of the Ghetto) , which contained Morris Rosenfelds translated Yiddish poems about the suffering masses in the Diaspora. Unlike Juda, which focused on the proud ancient Hebrews, Lieder des Ghetto concerned the torment of a displaced people with hope for future redemption in the Promised Land. Although Lilien traveled to Palestine and helped found the first Jewish art institute in Jerusalem, he and his wife Helen Magnus, an assimilated Jewish intellectual, grew increasingly absorbed in German bourgeois life and he never emigrated. On exhibit are first editions of Liliens book art and reproductions from those and other anthologies in the collection and designs printed on postcards. The postcards from circa 1910 represent an important format used to spread the internal message of Zionism. Lilien produced modern Jewish works that helped to instill a sense of national unity and pride, but his popularity and influence expanded throughout the East and West. Ephraim Moses Lilien (18741925) was an art nouveau illustrator and printmaker particularly noted for his art on Jewish themes. He was born in 1874, in Drohobycz, Galicia, then in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Lilien attended the Fifth Zionist Congress, held in Basel, as a member of the Democratic Fraction, an opposition group that supported the development of secular national culture. In 1905, at the Seventh Zionist Congress, in Basel, he, along with Boris Schatz, became a member of a committee formed to help establish the Bezalel Art School. As part of that work he accompanied Schatz to Jerusalem. Lilien was one of the two artists to accompany Boris Schatz to what is now Israel in 1906 for the purpose of establishing Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, and taught the school’s first class in 1906. Although his stay in the country was short-lived, he left his indelible stamp on the creation of an Eretz Israel style, placing biblical subjects in the Zionist context and oriental settings, conceived in an idealized Western design. In the first two decades of the century, Lilien’s work served as a model for the Bezalel group. Ephraim Moses Lilien (Maurycy Lilien), an art nouveau illustrator and print-maker, was born in Drohobycz, Galicia in 1874, was particularly noted for his art on Jewish and Zionist themes. As a member of the Zionist Movement, Lilien traveled to the Land of Israel several times between 1906 and 1918. Lilien was one of the two artists to accompany Boris Schatz to the Land of Israel in 1906 for the purpose of establishing Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, and taught the school’s first class in 1906 and designed the school’s logo. Ephraim Moses Lilien died in 1925, in Germany. Education 1890-92 Academy of Arts in Kraków with Jahn Metikoand, Vienna 1892 Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna Teaching 1906 Bezalel Academy of Arts & Design, Jerusalem, taught first class. Ephraim Moshe Lilien: The First Zionist Artist Diaspora According to E. Lilien, Zionism would be the art of the new Jews through which the new Jews would represent themselves. From the Schwadron Portrait Collection In December 1901 the art nouveau artist Ephraim Moshe Lilien joined his compatriots in the Fifth Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. There, he became part of an art revolution. Lilien, along with the Democratic Faction led by Martin Buber and Chaim Weizmann, called on the World Zionist Organization to adopt a program of Hebrew culture and a greater degree of democracy within the organization At the Fifth Zionist Congress, 1901. Theodor Herzl can be seen in the center along with other Zionist whos who of the day. Lilien is sitting on the floor on the bottom right. From the National Librarys Photography Collection One of Liliens most famous pieces of art was the Jewish National Fund emblem and logo which you can see below. The Fifth Zionist Congress most memorable accomplishment was the establishment of the Jewish National Fund. Jewish National Fund postcard, ca. 1901, Warsaw Levanon Company Liliens friendship with Martin Buber enabled his art to become not merely Jewish, or nor be an artist with who worked with Jewish themes, but to be a Zionist artist and thus part of a movement that was not merely political and social, but cultural as well. The illustration Lilien created for the Fifth Zionist Congress, 1901-02. From the National Librarys Postcard Collection Lilens part in the art revolution began he attended the Fifth Zionist Congress. Born in Drohobycz, Galicia (now Ukraine) in 1874. By 1889 Lilien went on to study painting and graphic techniques at the Academy of Arts in Kraków until 1893. It was during that time that Lilien studied under the painter Jan Matejko, considered one of Polands greatest historical painters from 1890 to 1892. Initially his art wasnt specifically Zionist; at least he didnt think so. But in 1900 he published his first major art project: He illustrated biblical scenes and Jewish images in the book Juda, ballads of Börries von Münchhausen, which is, ironically enough, a Christian retelling of the bible Dancing in Ancient Israel, an illustration from Juda, 1900, reproduced on a postcard published by Charlottenburg He didnt shy away from contemporary Jewish issues in his art. When the Yiddish poet Morris Rosenfelds book, Poems from the Ghetto, was translated into German, he was commissioned to illustrate it for the German audience. He very seriously and diligently illustrated the suffering of the Jews as they migrated from one form of poverty in Eastern Europe to another in America, where the majority of immigrants became peddlers or sweatshop workers exploited by factory managers. 1903, Warsaw Levanon Company. From the National Librarys Postcard Collection In 1903 the Russian persecution of the Jews came to a head during the Kishinev Pogroms. The Russian Empires oppression of Jews made it clear to Lilien that anti-Semitism had to be fought both politically and culturally and that the victims had to be honored. In Honor of the Sanctified Dead of Kishinev, ca. Of Maxim Gorkis Zbornik, Berlin. From the National Librarys Postcard Collection It seemed that Lilien decided that art would be the gentle sledgehammer with which Jews would break the chains of the Diaspora. And the art of the new Jew would represent the new Jew. The illustration below shows the tension between the opposing forces of the Jewish world at the time. One line shows religious, traditional Jews moving backwards, whereas the other line shows modern, muscular Jews moving forwards towards the horizon. Father and Son, ca. From the National Librarys Postcard Collection Lilien went on several expeditions to the Land of Israel on behalf of the World Zionist Organization. One of these expeditions was with Boris Schatz in 1906, when they established the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, the emblem of which is Liliens design. Lilien also taught the schools first class in 1906. Lilien didnt stay at Bezalel or in the Land of Israel after that first year. The Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design emblem Lilien died in Germany in 1925 at the age of 51. A street in Jerusalem is named for him The Bible (from Koine Greek , tà biblía, “the books”)[a] is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews, Samaritans, and Rastafarians. Those books included in the Bible by a tradition or group are called canonical. A number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents.  The Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Greek Septuagint and the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon, primarily about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible also differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans, Methodists and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of both the Bible and sacred tradition,  while many Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone. This concept arose during the Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. Others though, advance the concept of prima scriptura in contrast.  The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history, especially in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type.  According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible has done more to shape literature, history, entertainment, and culture than any book ever written. Its influence on world history is unparalleled, and shows no signs of abating.  As of the 2000s, it sells approximately 100 million copies annually.  Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Textual history 2 Development 3 Hebrew Bible 3.1 Torah 3.2 Nevi’im 3.3 Ketuvim 3.4 Original languages 4 Samaritan Pentateuch 5 Septuagint 5.1 Incorporations from Theodotion 5.2 Final form 6 Christian Bibles 6.1 Old Testament 6.2 New Testament 6.3 Development of the Christian canons 7 Divine inspiration 8 Versions and translations 9 Views 9.1 Other religions 9.2 Biblical studies 9.3 Higher criticism 10 Archaeological and historical research 11 Bible museums 12 Image gallery 13 Illustrations 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 16.1 Works cited 17 Further reading 18 External links Etymology The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and ultimately from Koin Greek: , romanized: ta biblia “the books” (singular , biblion).  Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra “holy book”, while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural gen. It gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun biblia, gen. Bibliae in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.  Latin biblia sacra “holy books” translates Greek tà biblía tà ágia, “the holy books”.  The word itself had the literal meaning of “paper” or “scroll” and came to be used as the ordinary word for “book”. It is the diminutive of byblos, “Egyptian papyrus”, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos (also known as Gebal) from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia lit. “Little papyrus books” was an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books (the Septuagint).  Christian use of the term can be traced to c.  The biblical scholar F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer (in his Homilies on Matthew, delivered between 386 and 388) to use the Greek phrase ta biblia (“the books”) to describe both the Old and New Testaments together.  Textual history By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the “scriptures” and they referred to them as “holy”, or in Hebrew (Kitvei hakkodesh), and Christians now commonly call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible “The Holy Bible” (in Greek , tà biblía tà ágia) or “the Holy Scriptures” (, e Agía Graph).  The Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now usually cited by book, chapter, and verse. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, and it is known as the Codex Vaticanus. The oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin (Vulgate) Bible is the Codex Amiatinus, dating from the 8th century.  Development See also: Authorship of the Bible The Isaiah scroll, which is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains almost the whole Book of Isaiah. It dates from the 2nd century BCE. Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, 16th-century painting. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that “the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages”,  and “the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers political, cultural, economic, and ecological varied enormously”. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is a collection of authoritative texts of apparently divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing.  He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon c. 3rd century BCE, only the Torah first and then the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament.  In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging. The period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark’s Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral traditions to assume fixed form.  The Bible was later translated into Latin and other languages. John Riches states that: The translation of the Bible into Latin marks the beginning of a parting of the ways between Western Latin-speaking Christianity and Eastern Christianity, which spoke Greek, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and other languages. The Bibles of the Eastern Churches vary considerably: the Ethiopic Orthodox canon includes 81 books and contains many apocalyptic texts, such as were found at Qumran and subsequently excluded from the Jewish canon. As a general rule, one can say that the Orthodox Churches generally follow the Septuagint in including more books in their Old Testaments than are in the Jewish canon.  Hebrew Bible Tanakh Torah (Instruction) [show] Nevi’im (Prophets) [show] Ketuvim (Writings) [show] vte Main article: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon The Nash Papyrus (2nd century BCE) contains a portion of a pre-Masoretic Text, specifically the Ten Commandments and the Shema Yisrael prayer. The Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Hebrew Bible. It defines the books of the Jewish canon, and also the precise letter-text of these biblical books, with their vocalization and accentuation. The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date from approximately the 9th century CE,  and the Aleppo Codex (once the oldest complete copy of the Masoretic Text, but now missing its Torah section) dates from the 10th century. The name Tanakh (Hebrew: “) reflects the threefold division of the Hebrew Scriptures, Torah (“Teaching”), Nevi’im (“Prophets”) and Ketuvim (“Writings). Torah Main article: Torah See also: Oral Torah A Torah scroll recovered from Glockengasse Synagogue in Cologne. The Torah is also known as the “Five Books of Moses” or the Pentateuch, meaning “five scroll-cases”.  Traditionally these books were considered to have been written almost entirely by Moses himself.  In the 19th century, Julius Wellhausen and other scholars proposed that the Torah had been compiled from earlier written documents dating from the 9th to the 5th century BCE, the “documentary hypothesis”.  Scholars Hermann Gunkel and Martin Noth, building on the form criticism of Gerhard von Rad, refined this hypothesis, while other scholars have proposed other ways that the Torah might have developed over the centuries.  Samaritan Inscription containing portion of the Bible in nine lines of Hebrew text, currently housed in the British Museum The Hebrew names of the books are derived from the first words in the respective texts. The Torah consists of the following five books: Genesis, Beresheeth Exodus, Shemot Leviticus, Vayikra Numbers, Bamidbar Deuteronomy, Devarim The first eleven chapters of Genesis provide accounts of the creation (or ordering) of the world and the history of God’s early relationship with humanity. The remaining thirty-nine chapters of Genesis provide an account of God’s covenant with the Biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (also called Israel) and Jacob’s children, the “Children of Israel”, especially Joseph. It tells of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home in the city of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan, and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt. The remaining four books of the Torah tell the story of Moses, who lived hundreds of years after the patriarchs. He leads the Children of Israel from slavery in Ancient Egypt to the renewal of their covenant with God at Mount Sinai and their wanderings in the desert until a new generation was ready to enter the land of Canaan. The Torah ends with the death of Moses.  The commandments in the Torah provide the basis for Jewish religious law. Tradition states that there are 613 commandments (taryag mitzvot). It contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets (Nevi’im Rishonim , the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets (Nevi’im Aharonim , the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and the Twelve Minor Prophets). The Nevi’im tell the story of the rise of the Hebrew monarchy and its division into two kingdoms, ancient Israel and Judah, focusing on conflicts between the Israelites and other nations, and conflicts among Israelites, specifically, struggles between believers in “the LORD God” and believers in foreign gods,  and the criticism of unethical and unjust behaviour of Israelite elites and rulers; in which prophets played a crucial and leading role. It ends with the conquest of the Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians followed by the conquest of the Kingdom of Judah by the Babylonians and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Former Prophets The Former Prophets are the books Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings. They contain narratives that begin immediately after the death of Moses with the divine appointment of Joshua as his successor, who then leads the people of Israel into the Promised Land, and end with the release from imprisonment of the last king of Judah. Treating Samuel and Kings as single books, they cover: Joshua’s conquest of the land of Canaan (in the Book of Joshua), the struggle of the people to possess the land (in the Book of Judges), the people’s request to God to give them a king so that they can occupy the land in the face of their enemies (in the Books of Samuel) the possession of the land under the divinely appointed kings of the House of David, ending in conquest and foreign exile (Books of Kings) Latter Prophets The Latter Prophets are divided into two groups, the “major” prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets, collected into a single book. The collection is broken up to form twelve individual books in the Christian Old Testament, one for each of the prophets: Hosea, Hoshea Joel, Yoel Amos, Amos Obadiah, Ovadyah Jonah, Yonah Micah, Mikhah Nahum, Nahum Habakkuk, Havakuk Zephaniah, Tsefanya Haggai, Khagay Zechariah, Zekharyah Malachi, Malakhi Ketuvim Main article: Ketuvim Books of the Ketuvim Three poetic books PsalmsProverbsJob Five Megillot (Scrolls) Song of SongsRuthLamentationsEcclesiastesEsther Other books Daniel EzraNehemiah (EzraNehemiah) Chronicles Hebrew Bible vte Ketuvim or Kûîm (in Biblical Hebrew: “writings”) is the third and final section of the Tanakh. The Ketuvim are believed to have been written under the Ruach HaKodesh (the Holy Spirit) but with one level less authority than that of prophecy.  The poetic books Hebrew text of Psalm 1:12 In Masoretic manuscripts (and some printed editions), Psalms, Proverbs and Job are presented in a special two-column form emphasizing the parallel stichs in the verses, which are a function of their poetry. Collectively, these three books are known as Sifrei Emet (an acronym of the titles in Hebrew, , , yields Emet “, which is also the Hebrew for “truth). These three books are also the only ones in Tanakh with a special system of cantillation notes that are designed to emphasize parallel stichs within verses. However, the beginning and end of the book of Job are in the normal prose system. The five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot) The five relatively short books of Song of Songs, Book of Ruth, the Book of Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Book of Esther are collectively known as the Hamesh Megillot (Five Megillot). These are the latest books collected and designated as “authoritative” in the Jewish canon even though they were not complete until the 2nd century CE.  Other books Besides the three poetic books and the five scrolls, the remaining books in Ketuvim are Daniel, EzraNehemiah and Chronicles. Although there is no formal grouping for these books in the Jewish tradition, they nevertheless share a number of distinguishing characteristics: Their narratives all openly describe relatively late events i. The Babylonian captivity and the subsequent restoration of Zion. The Talmudic tradition ascribes late authorship to all of them. Two of them (Daniel and Ezra) are the only books in the Tanakh with significant portions in Aramaic. Order of the books The following list presents the books of Ketuvim in the order they appear in most printed editions. It also divides them into three subgroups based on the distinctiveness of Sifrei Emet and Hamesh Megillot. The Three Poetic Books (Sifrei Emet) Tehillim (Psalms) Mishlei (Book of Proverbs) Iyyôbh (Book of Job) The Five Megillot (Hamesh Megillot) Shr Hashshrm (Song of Songs) or (Song of Solomon) (Passover) Rth (Book of Ruth) (Shbhûôth) Eikhah (Lamentations) (Ninth of Av) Also called Kinnot in Hebrew. Qheleth (Ecclesiastes) (Sukkôth) Estr (Book of Esther) (Pûrîm) Other books Dnîl (Book of Daniel) Ezr (Book of EzraBook of Nehemiah) Divrei ha-Yamim (Chronicles) The Jewish textual tradition never finalized the order of the books in Ketuvim. The Babylonian Talmud (Bava Batra 14b15a) gives their order as Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Daniel, Scroll of Esther, Ezra, Chronicles.  In Tiberian Masoretic codices, including the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, and often in old Spanish manuscripts as well, the order is Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Esther, Daniel, Ezra.  Canonization The Ketuvim is the last of the three portions of the Tanakh to have been accepted as biblical canon. While the Torah may have been considered canon by Israel as early as the 5th century BCE and the Former and Latter Prophets were canonized by the 2nd century BCE, the Ketuvim was not a fixed canon until the 2nd century of the Common Era.  Evidence suggests, however, that the people of Israel were adding what would become the Ketuvim to their holy literature shortly after the canonization of the prophets. As early as 132 BCE references suggest that the Ketuvim was starting to take shape, although it lacked a formal title.  References in the four Gospels as well as other books of the New Testament indicate that many of these texts were both commonly known and counted as having some degree of religious authority early in the 1st century CE. Many scholars believe that the limits of the Ketuvim as canonized scripture were determined by the Council of Jamnia c. Against Apion, the writing of Josephus in 95 CE, treated the text of the Hebrew Bible as a closed canon to which… No one has ventured either to add, or to remove, or to alter a syllable…  For a long time following this date the divine inspiration of Esther, the Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastes was often under scrutiny.  Original languages The Tanakh was mainly written in biblical Hebrew, with some small portions (Ezra 4:86:18 and 7:1226, Jeremiah 10:11, Daniel 2:47:28) written in biblical Aramaic, a sister language which became the lingua franca for much of the Semitic world.  Samaritan Pentateuch Main article: Samaritan Pentateuch Samaritans include only the Pentateuch in their biblical canon.  They do not recognize divine authorship or inspiration in any other book in the Jewish Tanakh.  A Samaritan Book of Joshua partly based upon the Tanakh’s Book of Joshua exists, but Samaritans regard it as a non-canonical secular historical chronicle.  Septuagint Main article: Septuagint Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c. 325350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s Greek edition and English translation. The Septuagint, or the LXX, is a translation of the Hebrew Scriptures and some related texts into Koine Greek, begun in the late 3rd century BCE and completed by 132 BCE,  initially in Alexandria, but in time it was completed elsewhere as well.  It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where; some may even have been translated twice, into different versions, and then revised.  As the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Torah always maintained its pre-eminence as the basis of the canon but the collection of prophetic writings, based on the Nevi’im, had various hagiographical works incorporated into it. In addition, some newer books were included in the Septuagint, among these are the Maccabees and the Wisdom of Sirach. However, the book of Sirach, is now known to have existed in a Hebrew version, since ancient Hebrew manuscripts of it were rediscovered in modern times. The Septuagint version of some Biblical books, like Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Jewish canon.  Some of these deuterocanonical books e. The Wisdom of Solomon, and the second book of Maccabees were not translated, but composed directly in Greek.  Since Late Antiquity, once attributed to a hypothetical late 1st-century Council of Jamnia, mainstream Rabbinic Judaism rejected the Septuagint as valid Jewish scriptural texts. Several reasons have been given for this. First, some mistranslations were claimed. Second, the Hebrew source texts used for the Septuagint differed from the Masoretic tradition of Hebrew texts, which was chosen as canonical by the Jewish rabbis.  Third, the rabbis wanted to distinguish their tradition from the newly emerging tradition of Christianity.  Finally, the rabbis claimed a divine authority for the Hebrew language, in contrast to Aramaic or Greek even though these languages were the lingua franca of Jews during this period (and Aramaic would eventually be given a holy language status comparable to Hebrew).  The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament.  The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches use most of the books of the Septuagint, while Protestant churches usually do not. After the Protestant Reformation, many Protestant Bibles began to follow the Jewish canon and exclude the additional texts, which came to be called Biblical apocrypha. The Apocrypha are included under a separate heading in the King James Version of the Bible, the basis for the Revised Standard Version.  Incorporations from Theodotion In most ancient copies of the Bible which contain the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, the Book of Daniel is not the original Septuagint version, but instead is a copy of Theodotion’s translation from the Hebrew, which more closely resembles the Masoretic Text.  The original Septuagint version was discarded in favour of Theodotion’s version in the 2nd to 3rd centuries CE. In Greek-speaking areas, this happened near the end of the 2nd century, and in Latin-speaking areas (at least in North Africa), it occurred in the middle of the 3rd century. History does not record the reason for this, and St. Jerome reports, in the preface to the Vulgate version of Daniel, This thing’just’ happened.  One of two Old Greek texts of the Book of Daniel has been recently rediscovered and work is ongoing in reconstructing the original form of the book.  The canonical EzraNehemiah is known in the Septuagint as “Esdras B”, and 1 Esdras is “Esdras A”. 1 Esdras is a very similar text to the books of EzraNehemiah, and the two are widely thought by scholars to be derived from the same original text. It has been proposed, and is thought highly likely by scholars, that “Esdras B” the canonical EzraNehemiah is Theodotion’s version of this material, and “Esdras A” is the version which was previously in the Septuagint on its own.  Final form Some texts are found in the Septuagint but are not present in the Hebrew. These additional books are Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah (which later became chapter 6 of Baruch in the Vulgate), additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Susanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Odes, including the Prayer of Manasseh, the Psalms of Solomon, and Psalm 151. Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic Text are grouped together. For example, the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings are in the LXX one book in four parts called (“Of Reigns”). In LXX, the Books of Chronicles supplement Reigns and it is called Paralipomenon (things left out). The Septuagint organizes the minor prophets as twelve parts of one Book of Twelve.  The Orthodox Old Testament[b] Greek-based name Conventional English name Law Génesis Genesis Éxodos Exodus Leuitikón Leviticus Arithmoí Numbers Deuteronómion Deuteronomy History N Iêsous Nauê Joshua Kritaí Judges Roúth Ruth [c] I Reigns I Samuel II Reigns II Samuel III Reigns I Kings IV Reigns II Kings I Paralipomenon[d] I Chronicles II Paralipomenon II Chronicles I Esdras 1 Esdras II Esdras EzraNehemiah [e] Tobit Tobit or Tobias Ioudith Judith Esther Esther with additions I Makkabaioi 1 Maccabees II Makkabaioi 2 Maccabees III Makkabaioi 3 Maccabees Wisdom Psalms Psalms Psalm 151 Psalm 151 Prayer of Manasseh Prayer of Manasseh Ib Job Proverbs Proverbs Ekklesiastes Ecclesiastes Song of Songs Song of Solomon or Canticles o Wisdom of Solomon Wisdom Wisdom of Jesus the son of Seirach Sirach or Ecclesiasticus o Psalms of Solomon Psalms of Solomon Prophets The Twelve Minor Prophets I. Messenger Malachi Hesaias Isaiah Hieremias Jeremiah Baruch Baruch Lamentations Lamentations Epistle of Jeremiah Letter of Jeremiah Iezekiêl Ezekiel Daniêl Daniel with additions Appendix’ IV Makkabees 4 Maccabees[g].. The item “1923 Bezalel LILIEN Jewish BIBLE Art Nouveau 3 BOOKS Erotica JUGENDSTIL Judaica” is in sale since Saturday, January 23, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Religion & Spirituality\Judaism\Books”. The seller is “judaica-bookstore” and is located in TEL AVIV. This item can be shipped worldwide.
- Country/Region of Manufacture: Germany
- Religion: Judaism