It’s a SHEET MUSIC of TEN YIDDISH children SONGS , Namely Vocal Suite, Ten Children’s Songs by I. Peretz, for Voice and Piano. Edited and/or composed by the Jewish composer MOSHE MILNER of the ST. PETERSBURG SOCIETY For JEWISH FOLK MUSIC (The GESSELSCHAFT). Including the MUSICAL NOTES for TEN CHILDREN SONGS. The publication was published in 1921 (Fully dated) by KULTUR LIGE / MELUKHE FARLAG in KIEV RUSSIA. The LITHOGRAPHIC COVER was made by the Jewish Russian Avant-Garde artist JOSEPH TCHAIKOV. JOSEF CHAIKOV (Also Tchaikov , Tshaykov). A member of the “Group for Jewish National Aesthetics” in Moscow together with artists like El Lissitzky, Yissakhar Ber Ryback and others. This fascinatic artistic branch of the RUSSIAN – JEWISH AVANT GARDE included artists such as EL LISSITZKY , JOSEPH CHAIKOV , MARC CHAGALL , BORIS ARONSON , NATHAN ALTMAN YISSACHAR BER RYBACK , KULTUR LIGE artists and others. This publication is a THRILLING COMBINATION of JEWISH – YIDISH – RUSSIAN ingenious TALENTS in ART , MUSIC and POETRY. Captures in YIDDISH and RUSSIAN. 12.5″ x 10″. The condition is only FAIR. The book was once restored. The fragile pages were reinforced at their margins. The torn LITHOGRAPHIC WRAPPER was pasted on a matching sheet but still has a few missing material at margins. The book was rebound by a HC. The current condition is that the fragile leaved tend to torn near the center – Perhaps require a repeateous restoration. (Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images). All these imperfections are being fairly reflected in the price. Will be sent inside a protective rigid packaging. AUTHENTICITY : This is an ORIGINAL vintage 1921 (Dated) copy , NOT a reproduction or a reprint or recent edition , It holds a life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY. Will be sent inside a protective packaging. Moisevich Chaikov (also spelled, among other spellings, Tshaykov, Tchaikov, and Tchaikovsky; 1888 1979) was a Russian Jewish sculptor, graphic designer and teacher, active both before the revolution and as a Soviet artist. Born in Kiev and initially trained as an engraver, Chaikov studied in Paris in the years 1910 through 1914. In 1912 he co-founded a group of young Jewish artists called Mahmad, and published a Hebrew-language magazine with that name; in 1913 he participated in the Salon d’Automne. He was co-founder, along with El Lissitzky, Boris Aronson and others, of the Jewish socialist Kultur Lige in Kiev, led sculpture classes there, supervised a children’s art studio and illustrated children’s books, and in post-revolutionary Kiev focused on billboards and agitational propaganda. In 1921 he published the Yiddish-language book Skulptur, advocating avant-garde sculpture as a contribution to a new Jewish art. This book was also the first book on sculpture to be published in Yiddish. Chaikov moved to Moscow to teach at Vkhutemas from 1923 to 1930, alongside fellow sculptors Boris Korolev and Vera Mukhina. All three designed and taught cubist sculpture in the distinctively Russian Cubo-Futurism style, radically geometric and highly dynamic. From 1929 Chaikov was the head of the Society of Russian Sculptors. His work in Paris was an extensive frieze of nine-foot figures, the People of the USSR, carved on two steles flanking the entrance to the pavilion. Fragments of the Paris work were unearthed in rural France in the 2000s, after having been presented to the French labor union after the fair, relocated to a holiday château, broken up by pro-Nazi youth during the occupation, and buried for 50 years. Chaikov continued to work in a variety of genres, techniques and scales. He was named an Honored Artist of the USSR in 1959, and his work is in the permanent collection of MOMA. He died in Moscow. Major worksPeople of the USSR friezes on steles flanking the entrance to the Soviet Pavilion at the 1937 Paris Exposition, for architect Boris Iofan (recently rediscovered) Bas reliefs for the Soviet Pavilion at the 1939 New York World’s Fair, for architect Iofan The golden Friendship of the Nations fountain at the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, Moscow, circa 1954 with fellow sculptors Z. Rileeva The Kultur Lige (Culture League) was a secular socialist Jewish organization associated with the Jewish Labour Bund, established in Kiev in 1918, whose aim was to promote Yiddish language literature, theater and culture.  The league organized various activities, including theater performances, poetry recitals, and concerts in Yiddish with the aim of disseminating Jewish art in Eastern Europe and Russia. Among some notable members of the organization were the scenic designer Boris Aronson (who later worked on Broadway),  the artist and architect El Lissitzky,  the writer David Bergelson,  the sculptor Joseph Chaikov, the writer Peretz Markish,  the poet David Hofstein,  and Isaac Ben Ryback.  Bergelson, Markish and Hofstein were later executed on Joseph Stalin’s orders during the so-called Night of the Murdered Poets, in 1952. Artists like Ryback and Lissitzky who were members of the group tried to develop a distinctively Jewish form of modernism in which abstract forms would be used as a means of expressing and disseminating popular culture. The manifesto of the group, published in November 1919, stated:The goal of the Kulturlige is to assist in creating a new Yiddish secular culture in the Yiddish language, in Jewish national forms, with the living forces of the broad Jewish masses, in the spirit of the working man and in harmony with their ideals of the future. “It also listed the “three pillars of the Kultur Lige as Yiddish education for the people, Yiddish literature, and Jewish art. In 1919 members of the group, Victor Alter and Henryk Berlewi, organized a major exhibition of Polish-Jewish art in Biaystok under the name “First Exhibition of Jewish Painting and Sculpture”. The exhibition was targeted at the Yiddish speaking Jewish community, as well as the Polish workers of the city. During the same year, the organization helped to sponsor sixty three Yiddish schools, fifty four libraries and many other cultural and educational institutions. In 1920 the Kiev branch of the organization was taken over by the Bolsheviks and the Jewish section of the Soviet Communist party, Yevsektsiya, and subjected to the bureaucracy of the Soviet state.  Its printing presses were taken away, it was denied paper for publishing and its central committee was forcefully disbanded.  As a result, the Warsaw branch became the main center for the organization. Afterward, the remains of the Kultur Lige in the Soviet Union continued under the auspices of the Yevsektsiya as a publishing house, mostly focusing on Yiddish textbooks for children. In Poland, the League established offices in other cities such as Wilno and ód. In 1924, it began to issue the Literarishe Bleter magazine (based on the Polish Wiadomosci Literackie) (Literature News) which became the main forum for discussions by the Yiddish intelligentsia on subjects of art, literature and theater. The items here represent only a portion of Yale’s holdings in Yiddish literature. The Beinecke, in collaboration with the Yale University library Judaica Collection, continues to digitize and make Yiddish books available online. With the Russian Revolution of 1917, prohibitions on Yiddish printing imposed by the Czarist regime were lifted. Thus, the early post-revolutionary period saw a major flourishing of Yiddish books and journals. The new freedoms also enabled the development of a new and radically modern art by the Russian avant-garde. Artists such as Mark Chagall, Joseph Chaikov, Issachar Ber Ryback, El (Eliezer) Lisitzsky and others found in the freewheeling artistic climate of those years an opportunity Jews had never enjoyed before in Russia: an opportunity to express themselves as both Modernists and as Jews. Their art often focused on the small towns of Russia and Ukraine where most of them had originated. Their depiction of that milieu, however, was new and different. Jewish art in the early post-revolutionary years emerged with the creation of a secular, socialist culture and was especially cultivated by the Kultur-Lige, the Jewish social and cultural organizations of the 1920s and 1930s. One of the founders of the first Kultur-Lige in Kiev in 1918 was Joseph Chaikov, a painter and sculptor whose books are represented in the Beineckes collection. The Kultur-Lige supported education for children and adults in Jewish literature, the theater and the arts. The organization sponsored art exhibitions and art classes and also published books written by the Yiddish languages most accomplished authors and poets and illustrated by artists who in time became trail blazers in modernist circles. This brief flowering of Yiddish secular culture in Russia came to an end in the 1920s. As the power of the Soviet state grew under Stalin, official culture became hostile to the experimental art that the revolution had at first facilitated and even encouraged. Many artists left for Berlin, Paris and other intellectual centers. Those that remained, like El Lisitzky, ceased creating art with Jewish themes and focused their work on furthering the aims of Communism. Tragically, many of them perished in Stalins murderous purges. The ArtistsEliezer Lisitzky (18901941), better known as El Lisitzky, was a Russian Jewish artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer, and architect. He was one of the most important figures of the Russian avant-garde, helping develop Suprematism with his friend and mentor, Kazimir Malevich. He began his career illustrating Yiddish children’s books in an effort to promote Jewish culture. In 1921, he became the Russian cultural ambassador in Weimar Germany, working with and influencing important figures of the Bauhaus movement. He brought significant innovation and change to the fields of typography, exhibition design, photomontage, and book design, producing critically respected works and winning international acclaim. However, as he grew more involved with creating art work for the Soviet state, he ceased creating art with Jewish themes. Among the best known Yiddish books illustrated by the artist is Sikhes Hulin by the writer and poet Moshe Broderzon and Yingel Tsingle Khvat, a childrens book of poetry by Mani Leyb. Both works have been completely digitized and can be found here. Born in Kiev, Chaikov studied in Paris from 1910 to 1913. Returning to Russia in 1914, he became active in Jewish art circles and in 1918 was one of the founders of the Kultur-Lige in Kiev. Though primarily known as a sculptor, in his early career, he also illustrated Yiddish books, many of them childrens books. In 1921 his Yiddish book, Skulptur was published. In it, the artist formulated an avant-garde approach to sculpture and its place in a new Jewish art. It too is in the Beinecke collection. Another of the great artists from this remarkable period in Yiddish cultural history is Issachar Ber Ryback. Together with Lisistzky, he traveled as a young man in the Russian countryside studying Jewish folk life and art. Their findings made a deep impression on both men as artists and as Jews and folk art remained an abiding influence on their work. One of Rybacks better known works is Shtetl, Mayn Khoyever heym; a gedenknish (Shtetl, My destroyed home; A Remembrance), Berlin, 1922. In this book, also in the Beinecke collection, the artist depicts scenes of Jewish life in his shtetl (village) in Ukraine before it was destroyed in the pogroms which followed the end of World War I. Indeed, Shtetl is an elegy to that world. David Hofsteins book of poems, Troyer (Tears), illustrated by Mark Chagall also mourns the victims of the pogroms. It was published by the Kultur-Lige in Kiev in 1922. Chagalls art in this book is stark and minimalist in keeping with the grim subject of the poetry. Chagall was a leading force in the new emerging Yiddish secular art and many of the young modernist artists of the time came to study and paint with him in Vitebsk, his hometown. Lisistzky and Ryback were among them. Chagall, however, parted ways with them when their artistic styles and goals diverged. Chagall moved to Moscow in 1920 where he became involved with the newly created and innovative Moscow Yiddish Theater. Jews in the Russian Avant Garde: IntroductionWell, isnt this a pickle. There was an exhibition of art by Russian Jews at the Jewish Museum in New York in 1996. Aleksandra Shatskikh wrote an article for its catalogue in English. I can find no trace of it in the original, but as luck would have it, a translation into Russian exists. It was about the Jewish participation in the Russian Avant Garde. Despite the name, it was not just a Russian phenomenon. Lots of nationalities of the Russian (and Soviet) empire participated in it, among them Ukrainians, Belorussians, Armenians, Finns, Poles, even Italians and Germans and, of course, Jews. We have all heard of Marc Chagall, but he was not alone in lending a Jewish sensibility to this great movement in art. There were specific characteristics to their art that allow one to make the claim that there was indeed a Jewish Russian avant-garde. They participated fully in the development of the genre, but did so whilst seeking to discover their Jewish consciousness during a period of intense scrutiny of their identity and patriotism. There were close ties between these centres, although there were sufficient distinctions as well. The secular Jewish art was more firmly established in St Petersburg, under the instruction and aegis of Leon Bakst who taught at a private academy of E. Zvantseva, who taught, among others, Chagall, Alexander Romm, Sofia Dimshitz; and at the academies of M. It has to be said, though, that there was no nationalistic conversation permitted at these schools. The first stage of the Russian avant-garde (end of the 1900s through the 1910s) had in its ranks several Jewish artists whose Jewishness didnt appear dominantly in their works. For example, Iosif Shkolniks works represent a moderate version of innovative researches into the pictorial and formal problems that were sought to be addressed by all artists of the Left. Shkolnik maintained a certain presence among the bohemian circles of the northern capital as one of the prime movers of the avant-garde association Union of Youth. Nationalistic self-awareness played no role in his creative life, nor in the fortunes of Vladimir Baranov-Rossine, Adolf Milman, or others. At the dawn of the Russian avant-garde, Jewish artists were connected to the dominant trends in the arts; the process of assimilation into academic movements of the time such as Mir Iskusstvo (World of Art) prevailed even in the first stage of development of the genre. For the majority of Jewish artists, their training had to be conducted abroad, because moving out of the Pale of Settlement to Moscow or St Petersburg was difficult. Among the impressive set of Russian Parisians, as the emigre avant-gardists were called at the time, a large proportion comprised natives of the towns and shtetls of the Pale. Among the young artists and critics of the time, specific questions on the cultures of other nationalities werent of serious interest, unlike in the previous decades, when much of public opinion was guided by V. Stasov, a great enthusiast for the revival of Jewish culture in Russia. The new guard, all Russian citizens, considered themselves Russians first, which served to dissolve in the eyes of foreign observers any and all national distinctions. A series of articles by A. Lunacharsky from Paris to a newspaper in Kiev, titled Young Russia in Paris (early 1914), illustrates this sublimation of identities into Russianness: it included essays on the Jews Marc Chagall, David Shterenberg and Iosif Teper. While the work of the first two is well-known, making it easy to judge their individual approaches to the question of national identity, for the last it is more tricky: going by the remarks of a contemporary critic, the issue was a hot one for Teper. Lunacharsky himself (or Yakov Tugendhold who lived in Paris at the same time) makes no mention of any Jewish theme observable in the oeuvre of the artists before the Great War. The likes of Osip Tsadkin, Jacques Lipschitz, Hannah Orlova, Mane-Katz, Oscar Meschanikov and others all considered themselves Russian. Marc Chagall, Nathan Altman, Leon Zack, Adolf Milman, and other Russian Parisians occupied a prominent place in the national artistic life, and were closely connected with the activities of radical artists. Meanwhile, they participated in French and international exhibitions as Russian artists; only later did many of them become masters of the modern Jewish art. They continued to consider themselves Russian, and when they set up the 1928 Exhibition of Contemporary French Art in Moscow, they included their own pieces in the Russian section. Besides the names mentioned above, we encounter others such as Mikhail Kikoin, Zachary Rybak (Issachar Ryback), Pavel Kremny. The nucleus of Russian artistic life in Paris from the beginning of the 1910s was at the Beehive (La Ruche). Here Chagall worked, as did the likes of Nathan Altman, Iosif Chaikoff, Lazar Lissitsky, David Shterenberg, all of whom involved themselves in intensive discussion and quest for the roots of Jewish identity and art. For at the same time, all Slavic peoples living in Eastern Europe were consumed with their own rising nationalistic consciousness. The Ashkenazim were no different. Whereas European artists were not so tied to their nationalistic roots, in Russia, an appeal to an artists national cultural heritage was a significant feature. Leftwing Russian artists claimed that they were committed to the East and drew attention to their national arts. They protest, they said, against a slavish subordination to the West. Young Jewish artists could with conviction subscribe to the same words. The likes of Kandinsky and Larionov and Malevich sought inspiration in the ancient Russian iconography and primitive art of centuries past by authors unknown, and their own works were fuelled by this investigation. Likewise, the revival of the Russian Jewry in the 19th century led young Jewish artists to the delighted rediscovery and promotion of their own heritage, which then served to propel the next stage in the creative revolution of the Jewish avant-garde. Mikhail “Moshe” Arnoldovich Milner (, ; Rokitno Basilovsky, Kiev Governorate 1886-Leningrad, 1953) was a Russian Jewish pianist and composer. He is notable as composer, and conductor, of the first Yiddish opera in post-revolution Russia “Die Himlen brenen” (“The Heavens Burn”) in 1923.  He sang in the choir of the Brodsky Choral Synagogue in Kiev, then attended the Kiev Conservatory. He studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory from 1907 till 1915. While in St Petersburg Milner began to compose Yiddish songs for Susman Kiselgof’s Society for Jewish Folk Music .  He also wrote incidental music for Jewish theaters. He provided music for the Habima Theater and State Jewish Theater, Moscow (GOSET) , and the Leningrad choir Evokans. , , – («») (40). 3 : « » (1923, ; 3- «»), « » (1933), «». The financial support of the Brodsky family enabled him to attend the Kiev Conservatory. In 1907 he was admitted to the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where he studied piano and composition until 1915. Under the influence of Susman Kiselgof, Milner became in 1911 affiliated with the Society for Jewish Folk Music, which later published several of his works. In 1923 he conducted the première of his opera “Die Himlen brenen” – the first Yiddish opera in Russia; after two performances it was denounced as reactionary and forbidden. In the 1920s Milner wrote incidental music for different Jewish theaters: the Hebrew theater “Habima” (Moscow) as well as for the State Jewish Theaters (GOSET) in Moscow, Charkov and Birobidzhan. In the 1930s he also was musical director of the Jewish Voice Ensemble (Evokans) in Leningrad. Among the composers of the New Jewish School Milner stands out through his vocal recitatives based on typical intonations of the Yiddish language. The New Jewish School can be compared to other national currents, forming the European musical landscape since the middle of the 19th century. While Russian, Czech, Spanish or Norwegian national music was able to unfold and establish itself in the cultural conscience, the development of the Jewish school was violently terminated by the Stalinist and national-socialist policy after only three decades. The history of the New Jewish School started in the first decade of the 20th century. In 1908 the Society for Jewish folk music was founded in St. Petersburg – the first Jewish musical institution in Russia. Important composers, such as Joseph Achron, Michail Gnesin, Alexander Krejn , Moshe Milner, Solomon Rosowsky, Lazare Saminsky and others joined it. In contrast to Jewish composers from Western Europe these young artists did not lose their connection to the Jewish community. The more than five million Jews in Russia (at that time about half of the Jews in the world) lived in old traditions, which remained a nurturing soil and a source of inspiration for musicians. Initially, the activities of the Society concentrated on the collection, processing, publication and presentation of Jewish folklore. At the same time more and more original compositions were created, which were published in its own publishing company. Additionally, concerts, lectures and ethnologic expeditions were organized. By 1913, the Society already had more than one thousand members; subsidiaries were opened in seven cities. For young composers (about twenty five of them) the Society was a union of kindred spirits, where discussions could be held and a familiar atmosphere prevailed. As a result of the political and economic collapse in the years 1918 to 1921, the Petersburg Society and its subsidiaries in other cities had to discontinue their work. Most of the leading members from Petersburg emigrated during this time, while the members in Moscow had smaller losses. This is why the center o f Jewish music re-located from Petersburg to Moscow in the 1920s. In Moscow the Society could be revived. David Schor, the first president of the newly formed Society for Jewish music, stressed in a lecture, that in contrast to the previous Society for Jewish folk music, performances, expenses and spreading of Jewish art music would be the center of attention. It was clear from the beginning that the activity of the Society would not attain the same dimensions as its predecessor. Its activities concentrated predominantly on concerts. These concerts played a crucial role for the new Jewish music, as they offered the composers a platform which they normally would not have had. This was especially an important incentive for young composers to devote themselves to Jewish music. In the years 1923 to 1929 hundreds of works (for the most part chamber music), some of which were exclusively composed for the concerts of the Society, were created in this way. The programs were worked out by a music commission, which included, among others, the composers Michail Gnesin, the brothers Grigori and Alexander Krein and Alexander Weprik. One can judge the high standard of the Society by looking at the names of the performers. First-class Jewish and Russian artists, like the pianist Maria Judina or the members of the famous Beethoven quartet remained linked with the Society throughout the entire time of its existence. Starting in 1925 the Society for Jewish music was attacked by music officials for its repertoire. Serious signs of a crisis became evident at the end of 1927. The Society was increasingly steered by communists. They demanded a complete re-orientation, especially a repertoire that met the requirements of Jewish working people. The days of most Jewish cultural institutions were already numbered – the last event of the society is dated December 22nd, 1929. Jewish artists had to adapt to the reigning cultural doctrine of socialist realism and had to deny their Judaism. But at that time the New Jewish School was no longer confined to Russia. It also had a considerable influence on international Jewish musical life. Just as its activities in Russia had almost come to a standstill, this music spread throughout Europe, with Vienna as the most outstanding center. In 1928 a Society for the Promotion of Jewish Music was founded in Vienna. Its most important composers were Israel Brandmann, Joachim Stutschewsky and Juliusz Wolfsohn. Not only was the New Jewish School a victim of Stalinist antisemitic politics in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, but in other countries too its development was thwarted more and more by antisemitism. The final end came with NS-domination over West- and Central Europe, leading to the expulsion and murder of Jewish musicians. Society for Jewish Folk Music Author Yoel Epstein Violins, Voice and Jews In the spring of 1897, on the eve of the Russian Orthodox Easter, two Russian musicians met in an encounter that was to have impacts on classical and popular music to this day. Vladimir Stasov, music historian and promoter of the New Russian National School of The Five Rimsky-Korsakov, Cui, Balakirev, Borodin and Moussorgsky was introduced to the Russian Jewish composer and music critic Joel Engel. Stasov berated Engel for abandoning his own heritage for the Slavic culture of Russian intellectuals. Where is your national pride in the music of your own people! According to Jacob Weinberg, a close friend of Engels, The young Engel was overwhelmed, bewildered [Stasovs] words struck Engels imagination like lightning this was the memorable night when Jewish art music was born. From that moment, Engel dedicated his life to transcribing, arranging, and promoting the musical heritage of Russian Jewry. He inspired a group of likeminded musicians of Russian Jewish origin, who together formed the St. Petersburg Society for Jewish Folk Music. Members of the society included the violin virtuoso Joseph Achron, composer and pedagogue Mikhael Gnessin, and a band of lesser known composers. The group developed a unique style that merged the melodic elements of Jewish folk and liturgical music the music of the klezmer with the rich harmonies of the late Russian romantic style. Central to this new style was the uniquely haunting timbre of voice and violin in duo. Their work was an influence on many later composers, both Jewish and non-Jewish, including Shostakovitch, Prokofiev, Milhaud, Bloch and others. They laid much of the foundation of modern art music written in Palestine and later Israel, as well as Israeli popular and folk music. Without their work, there would be no Klezmer revival as it is flourishing today. The Hebrew National Style While each of the composers of the new Hebrew national school had his own style, there are a number of clear common characteristics. First and foremost, these composers preferred the chamber or lied format over larger symphonic forms. True, there are a few symphonic works, but the vast majority of the works are for voice and piano, or for small string chamber groups. Voice and string ensembles One of the outstanding forms of the group was the song for voice, piano and either violin or viola. The voice-violin combination, such a favorite during the Baroque period, was virtually abandoned by the classical and romantic composers. Aside from the two songs opus 91 by Brahms for viola, contralto and piano, the romantic composers wrote almost nothing for this ensemble; Saints Saens wrote a few songs with violin/piano accompaniment, and Donizetti wrote a couple of songs. Schubert wrote lieder with obbligato clarinet and obbligato horn, but nothing for violin or viola. It is somewhat surprising, then, that these composers chose to write extensively for this combination. No doubt the importance of the violin in Jewish folk music of the time played a deciding role in their choice. The violin was the instrument of choice, and was almost ubiquitous, in Jewish households. How do you know how many men live in a house? Asked Yiddish author Y. Count the fiddles hanging on the wall thats how many men there are. Jewish art music movement From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Society for Jewish Folk Music) Jump to navigation Jump to search show This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Hebrew. The Jewish art music movement began at the end of the 19th century in Russia, with a group of Russian Jewish classical composers dedicated to preserving Jewish folk music and creating a new, characteristically Jewish genre of classical music. The music it produced used Western classical elements, featuring the rich chromatic harmonies of Russian late Romantic music, but with melodic, rhythmic and textual content taken from traditional Jewish folk or liturgical music. The group founded the St. Petersburg Society for Jewish Folk Music, a movement that spread to Moscow, Poland, Austria, and later Palestine and the United States. Although the original society existed formally for only 10 years (from 1908 to 1918), its impact on the course of Jewish music was profound. The society, and the art music movement it fostered, inspired a new interest in the music of Eastern European Jewry throughout Europe and America. It laid the foundations for the Jewish music and Klezmer revival in the United States, and was a key influence in the development of Israeli folk and classical music. With the outbreak of World War I and the rise of Communism in Russia, most of the composers active in the Jewish art music movement fled Eastern Europe, finding their ways to Palestine or America. There, they became leaders of the Jewish musical communities, composing for both synagogue and the concert hall. Contents 1 Origins 2 The St. Petersburg Society for Jewish Folk Music 3 Jewish art music outside Russia 4 Footnotes 5 References 6 External links Origins The interest in Jewish national music coincided with the nationalist trends in music throughout Eastern Europe. In Russia, composers led by Rimsky-Korsakov, were composing new works based on Russian folk themes. In Hungary, Zoltán Kodály and later Béla Bartók undertook a massive project of recording and cataloging folk melodies, and incorporating them into their compositions. Other composers such as Antonín Dvoák and Leo Janáek were increasingly seeking a uniquely national sound in their work. “Europe was impelled by the Romantic tendency to establish in musical matters the national boundaries more and more sharply, ” wrote Alfred Einstein. The collecting and sifting of old traditional melodic treasures… Formed the basis for a creative art-music.  Parallel with this trend toward national music styles was an awakening of nationalist sentiment among the Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe. Long subjected to severe restrictions on their lives, outbursts of violent antisemitic pogroms, and forced concentration in a segregated region of Russia called the Pale of Settlement,  Russian jewry developed an intense nationalist identity during the 1880s onward. This identity gave rise to a number of political movements – the Zionist movement, which advocated emigration from Russia to Palestine, and the Bund, which sought cultural equality and autonomy within Russia. There was a flowering of Yiddish literature, with authors like Sholem Aleichem, Mendele Mocher Sforim and others. A Yiddish theater movement started, and numerous Yiddish newspapers and periodicals were published. Violinist Joseph Achron In spite of the restrictions on residency and quotas on Jewish students in universities, many Russian Jews enrolled as music students at the St. These included violinist Joseph Achron, composer Mikhail Gnesin, and others. Many of the great violinists of the last century Jascha Heifetz, Nathan Milstein, Efrem Zimbalist, Mischa Elman, to name a few were Jewish students of Leopold Auer, who taught at the conservatory. While many of these students came from orthodox Jewish backgrounds Achron, for example, was son of a cantor their studies of music at the conservatory were strictly of the western classical tradition. However, the rise of nationalism in Russian music also awakened an incipient interest in Jewish music. In 1895, Yiddish writer Y. Peretz started collecting lyrics of Yiddish folksongs. :28 Abraham Goldfaden, founder of the Yiddish theater in Russia, incorporated many folksongs and folk style music in his productions.  In 1898, two Jewish historians, Saul Ginsburg and Pesach Marek, embarked on the first effort to create an anthology of Jewish folk music. :26 The main catalyzer of the movement for national Jewish music, however, was Joel Engel. Engel, composer and music critic, was born outside the Pale of Jewish settlement, and was a completely assimilated Russian. :33 A meeting with the Russian nationalist critic Vladimir Stasov inspired Engel to seek his Jewish roots. Weinberg eventually migrated to Palestine where he wrote the first Hebrew opera, “The Pioneers” (Hechalutz) in 1924. Engel set out to study the folk music of the Jews of the Russian shtetls, spending the summer of 1897 traveling throughout the Pale, listening to and notating Yiddish songs. In 1900, he issued an album of ten Jewish songs, and presented a lecture concert of Jewish folk music. :31 The St. Petersburg Society for Jewish Folk Music A composition by H. Kopit, published by the Society. The cover sheet shows the logo that appeared on the Society’s publications: a star of David enclosing a harp, flanked by a winged lion and a deer, recalling the Biblical verse Strong as a lion, quick as a deer. ” In 1908, Engel and a group of like-minded musicians from the Petersburg conservatory, (including Lazare Saminsky), founded the “St. ” The objectives of the society were to develop Jewish music “by collecting folksongs… And supporting Jewish composers, and to publish compositions and research on Jewish music.  The society produced concerts, primarily of arrangements of folk melodies for various ensembles, and published arrangements and original compositions by its members. These included the composers Solomon Rosowsky, Alexander Krein, Mikhail Gnessin, and the violinist Joseph Achron. With the growing nationalist and Zionist sentiment among the Jewish population, these concerts were received enthusiastically. In a concert in the Ukrainian city of Vinitse, for example, “the artists were met at the train and paraded through the Jewish part of the city with great ceremony and enthusiasm, ” recollected the local cantor. :48 Among the artists performing in these concerts were violinists Jascha Heifetz and Efrem Zimbalist, cellist Joseph Press and the bass Feodor Chaliapin. In 1912, the society sponsored an expedition that included the Yiddish musician and educator Sussman Kisselgoff, to record Jewish folk music using the newly invented Edison phonograph. The group recorded more than 1000 wax cylinders. The collection is preserved in the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, in Kiev.  This collection is one of the most important ethnographic resources of Jewish life in Ukraine from that period. Another important endeavour of the society was the publication of a Song Collection for Jewish Schools and Home. This songbook was a monumental six volumes, and includes, in addition to folksongs collected by Kisselgoff and others, original art songs and a section on cantillation of religious texts. Jewish art music outside Russia The success of the society spread throughout Russia, and into eastern and central Europe. In 1913, a branch was founded in Kharkov, and later in Moscow and Odessa. The advent of World War I and the Russian Revolution put an end to the formal existence of the society, but its members continued their activities and influence in Russia and abroad. Polish Jewish musicians such as Janot Rotkin, inspired by the society, embarked on their own projects of gathering, arranging, and composing Jewish music. In 1928, the Society for the Promotion of Jewish Music was founded in Vienna.  With the onset of the Russian revolution, most of the leading members of the St. Petersburg society left Russia. Joel Engel moved to Berlin in 1922, where he established the Juwal Publishing house. There he republished many of the society’s works. Two years later he moved to Palestine, and started Jibneh, which continued the publishing work of Juwal. He died in Palestine in 1927. A street in Tel Aviv now bears his name. Lazare Saminsky emigrated to the U. In 1920, where he became a leading figure in the promotion of Jewish music. He was music director of the Temple Emanu-El reform congregation in New York, a position he held until his death, in 1959.  In 1932, Miriam Zunser, together with Saminsky, Joseph Yasser and others, founded MAILAMM (known by its Hebrew acronym), an institute for the study and promotion of Jewish music in Palestine and the United States; it was one of the predecessor organizations to the American Society for Jewish Music, which formed under that name in 1974.  Solomon Rosowsky moved to Palestine, and later to the United States, where he continued composing, teaching and researching Jewish music. Jacob Weinberg moved to Palestine in 1922 after being persecuted in Odessa by the Bolsheviks. In 1927 his opera “The Pioneers” won first prize in the Sesquicentennial composition contest. His religious works were performed in New York City at Temple Emanuel, (where he became a “house composer”), as well as the Park Avenue Syngagogue and the 92nd St. He joined the music faculty of Hunter College and the (now defunct) NY College of Music. He continued to compose, perform, and teach. His comic opera, “The Pioneers” (“Hechalutz”) (1924) was performed in concerts at Carnegie Hall in February, 1941 and again in February, 1947, and in the 1930s at City Center (then called “The Mecca Temple”, with its Moorish architecture). It was also performed in Berlin in the 1930s by the Kulturbund, featuring the great soprano Mascha Benya. Her aria “Song of Solomon” was more recently performed in 1998 by soprano Harolyn Blackwell at Lincoln Center’s Avery Fisher Hall in a gala “Salute to Israel’s 50th Birthday” concert conducted by Leon Botstein with the American Symphony Orchestra. A production of “The Pioneers” is planned for Brooklyn College in the fall, 2015 to celebrate the opening of their new performing arts center. A concert version of this opera was produced by his granddaughter, Ellen L. Weinberg, in NYC in 2012 and can be seen on YouTube. Society for Jewish Folk Music Contents Hide Suggested Reading Author In its brief existence 1908ca. 1919 the Society for Jewish Folk Music Rus. Obshchestvo Evreiskoi Narodnoi Muzyki; Yid. Gezelshaft far Yidisher Folks-Muzik launched an influential movement among young Russian Jewish composers to create a modern national style of Jewish concert music. In the late 1890s and early 1900s, as part of the Russian Jewish intelligentsias growing interest in Jewish nationalism and Yiddish folk culture, musician and music critic Yoel Engel and historian-folklorists Peysekh Marek and Shaul Ginsburg promoted the study of Jewish folk music from the Pale of Settlement through fieldwork, public lectures, and publications. These initial efforts, combined with the encouragement of Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, soon inspired a group of young Jewish musicians at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory to organize the Society for Jewish Folk Music in 1908. The societys early prominent members included Lazare Saminsky, Efrayim Shkliar, Solomon Rosowsky, Aleksandr Krein, Mikhail Gnesin, and Joseph Achron. Its activity comprised four main areas: research, composition, performance, and publishing. Many individual members conducted ethnographic fieldwork, transcribing Yiddish folk songs, klezmer melodies, Hasidic nigunim, and other forms of traditional Jewish music, which then served as the basis for the creation of modern concert-music pieces. The first compositions generally took the form of short, stylized arrangements for some combination of voice, piano, and strings or chorus. Over time, the works grew in originality and in formal and harmonic complexity, eventually including pieces for large chamber ensembles and orchestral arrangements. Stylistically, these works reflected a mixture of late Russian Romantic style with the emerging European modernist aesthetic. Performed by Jascha Heifetz with orchestra directed by Josef Pasternack. (YIVO) The society maintained a steady schedule of concerts, divided between small regular lecture-concerts for the Saint Petersburg membership devoted to various aspects of Jewish music and periodic large, public concerts typically held at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. In 1910, the society began its music-publishing efforts with an initial series of 15 compositions. Eventually the society and its various successor organizations would publish several hundred different pieces of music. The impact of the society extended beyond Saint Petersburg. Requests for membership, sheet music, and other assistance came from places as distant as Zurich, Edinburgh, Baltimore, and Tel Aviv. Within the Russian Empire, local branches were established in many cities, including Moscow (1913), Kiev (1913), and Odessa (1916). Each branch distributed the societys publications and sponsored lectures and concerts. In spite of its avowed Jewish nationalist orientation, the society did not pursue any one particular political affiliation, but collaborated comfortably with Zionist, Folkspartey, and liberal Jewish groups. In the years 1912 to 1914, members of the society also organized and participated in S. An-skis Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Expedition to the Pale of Settlement, resulting in an invaluable trove of musical transcriptions and early field recordings. Other projects included music classes and community choruses in both Saint Petersburg and Moscow and the Lider-zamelbukh far der Yidisher shul un familie Sbornik pesen dlia evreiskoi shkoly i semi [Anthology of Songs for the Jewish School and Family]; 1st ed. 1912, a large, diverse collection of music that even included the works of non-Jewish composers such as Beethoven and Mozart. The onset of World War I disrupted but did not halt most of the societys work. The main branch in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), however, began to encounter various technical difficulties regarding music publishing and maintaining contact with other branches. At the same time, the Moscow chapter, under the active leadership of Engel, grew in scope and importance during the war years. Relations between Petrograd and Moscow deteriorated, owing to communication problems and to the Moscow chapters growing sense of independence. In addition, the chaos and destruction of the revolution in 19171918 led to a further breakdown in the authority and organizational structure of the organization. It was in this context that the Moscow branch in 1918 formally reorganized itself as the Obshchestvo Evreiskoi Muzyki (Society for Jewish Music), initiating music publishing under its own name. Concerts and meetings did continue to take place in both Moscow and Petrograd through at least 1919, the last year that either of the two groups functioned at full capacity. The Russian Revolution split the society in three different geographic directions. Activities in Petrograd continued in 1918 and 1919 with the support of the new Bolshevik state through the Peoples Commissariat for Enlightenment. Unsuccessful attempts were also made to relaunch publishing activities in partnership with the Kiev-based Kultur-lige. But by the early 1920s the political and cultural focus of Jewish life had shifted to Moscow. There, a new version of the Society for Jewish Music was formally organized in 1923. In drastically different political, social, and cultural conditions, but with government recognition and support, this society presented concerts, pursued fieldwork, and published music through 1929. In this way, much of the compositional legacy of the organization was continued, as composers such as Krein, Gnesin, Aleksandr Veprik, and Moyshe (Mikhail) Milner produced an impressive range of Jewish concert music, including opera, ballet, symphonies, and Yiddish theater. Various efforts were made to continue the publishing and performance legacy of the society in Central Europe. Soon this work shifted to Jewish Palestine, where both Yoel Engel and Solomon Rosowsky immigrated in the 1920s. There the societys cultural model of Jewish national music influenced many Zionist composers and critics. New York became a third main center of activity, drawing many other former members settled, notably Lazare Saminsky, Leo Zeitlin, and Joseph Achron. Sporadic attempts to restart some version of the society eventually resulted in the founding of the American-Palestine Music Association (Makhon Erets Yisraeli le-Madae ha-Musikah; Mailamm) in 1932, followed in 1939 by the establishment of the Jewish Music Forum, which continued much of the academic and artistic legacy of the group into the 1960s, eventually emerging as the American Society for Jewish Music. Intellectually and artistically, the society remained an influential model for both academic scholars of Jewish music and composers of Jewish concert music throughout the twentieth century. The end of the Soviet Union and the opening of Soviet archives has led to a noticeable revival of interest in the societys history and music, as demonstrated by concerts, conferences, publications, and recordings in Russia, Europe, Israel, and the United States. SOCIETY FOR JEWISH FOLK MUSIC, society founded in St. Petersburg in November 1908 by a group of Jewish students at the conservatory there and their friends, among them Solomon Rosowsky, Lazare Saminsky, A. It was originally intended to be a “Society for Jewish Music, ” but the commanding general of the district refused to license it under this title because he doubted whether true Jewish music existed, although he conceded that there must be Jewish folk music. The word folk was therefore inserted in the name and constitution. An important circle of Jewish musicians with similar interests had already formed in Moscow c. 1894 around Joel Engel, and the first concert of the material they had collected and arranged was held there in 1900. This and similar groups now coalesced with the society in St. Joseph Achron, Moses Milner, Mikhail Gnesin, Joseph Yasser, Alexander Veprik, and Alexander Krein soon joined its ranks. In 1912 the Society already had 389 members with chapters in Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, and Odessa. In 1918 it was disbanded by the Soviet government as “not conforming to the spirit of the time, ” but the influence of its ideology and actions persisted both among the members who remained in Russia and among those who left to settle in Western Europe, the United States, and Palestine. The Society’s constitution did not fully reflect its unwritten ideology, and its provisions were never carried out in full. These are quoted here because all subsequent organizations for the promotion of Jewish music followed the same basic pattern. The aim of the society was to promote the research and development of Jewish folk music religious and secular by the collection of folk songs and their harmonization, and to aid Jewish composers. ” For this purpose the Society was to issue publications of music and musical research; to organize meetings, concerts, operatic performances, and lectures; to form a choir and orchestra of its own; to found a library; to publish a periodical; and to organize competitions and award prizes for “musical works of Jewish character. An ensemble of singers and instrumentalists was founded which undertook many concert tours. Expeditions went to the Vitebsk and Kherson regions, and the melodies they collected were given to various composers for harmonization. Dozens of these works were published. Kisselgoff, Zhitomirsky, and Lvow also published the Lider Zamlbukh with arrangements of folk and art material for school and home use. ” In 1915 the society was stirred up by the controversy between Saminsky and Engel, in which Saminsky questioned whether the indiscriminate gathering and propagation of any and every tune taken from the “folk really represented Jewish music, and pressed for a more discerning search as well as for the recognition of the greater authenticity of the liturgical traditions. Saminsky’s visits to the Jewish communities in the Caucasus and Turkey confronted him with the reality of a Jewish musical tradition outside the Ashkenazi culture which he had already surmised was neither less and perhaps even more authentic than that of Eastern Europe. Another controversy arose between Engel and Shalom Aleichem Engel denying and Shalom Aleichem advocating the recognition of the songs of Mark Warshawski as true folk songs. Discussions of what constituted Jewish music were also frequent and there was an intense nationalistic spirit (although most of the society’s leading members, with the exception of Engel, did not identify directly with the Zionist movement). Engel’s foundation of the Juwal-Verlag in Berlin was the last (actually posthumous) direct result of the society’s endeavors. Its ideals were carried to the United States, where they were propagated by Saminsky, Yasser, Rosowsky, and Achron, and to Palestine where this was done by Engel himself. After his death in 1927, they continued to exert a strong influence on musical developments in the yishuv through Menashe Ravina and Joachim Stutschewsky. The item “1921 Yiddish BOOK Judaica CHAIKOV Jewish AVANT GARDE ART Russian KULTUR LIGE” is in sale since Saturday, May 22, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Religion & Spirituality\Judaism\Books”. The seller is “judaica-bookstore” and is located in TEL AVIV. 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