The EMBLEMS of the 12 tribes on the back cover. The FULL – COMPLETE Hebrew BIBLE is accompanied by numerous BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATIONS by GUSTAVE DORE. 3.5″ x 5.5″. Tiny stains in rims. Front page slightly creased. (Pls look at scan for images). Will be sent inside a protective rigid packaging. This is an ORIGINAL vintage 1962 military BIBLE (Dated), NOT a recent edition or a reprint , It comes with life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY. Will be sent protected inside a protective rigid packaging. Bible refers to respective collections of religious writings of Judaism and of Christianity. The exact composition of the Bible is dependent on the religious traditions of specific denominations. Modern Judaism generally recognizes a single set of canonical books known as the Tanakh, or Hebrew or Jewish Bible. It comprises three parts: the Torah (“Teaching”, also known as the Pentateuch or “Five Books of Moses”), the Prophets, and the Writings. It was primarily written in Hebrew with some small portions in Aramaic. The Christian Bible includes the same books as the Tanakh (referred to in this context as the Old Testament), but usually in a different order, together with twenty-seven specifically Christian books collectively known as the New Testament. Those were originally written in Greek. Among some traditions, the Bible includes apocryphal books that were not accepted into the Tanakh. Eastern Orthodox Churches use all of the books that were incorporated into the Septuagint, to which they add the earliest Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible; Roman Catholics include some of these books in their canon; and many Protestant Bibles follow the Jewish canon, excluding the additional books. Some editions of the Christian Bible have a separate Biblical apocrypha section for books not considered canonical. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin, as used in the phrase biblia sacra “holy book” – In the Latin of the Middle Ages, the neuter plural for Biblia gen. Bibliorum gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun biblia, gen. Bibliae, in which singular form the word has passed into the languages of the Western world. This stemmed from the Greek term (ta biblia ta hagia), “the holy books”, which derived from (biblion), “paper” or “scroll, ” the ordinary word for “book”, which was originally a diminutive of (byblos, “Egyptian papyrus”), possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. Biblical scholar Mark Hamilton states that the Greek phrase Ta biblia (“the books”) was “an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books several centuries before the time of Jesus, ” and would have referred to the Septuagint. The Online Etymology Dictionary states, The Christian scripture was referred to in Greek as Ta Biblia as early as c. The Tanakh (Hebrew) consists of 24 books. Tanakh is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible: the Torah (“Teaching/Law” also known as the Pentateuch), Nevi’im (“Prophets”), and Ketuvim (“Writings, ” or Hagiographa), and is used commonly by Jews but unfamiliar to many English speakers and others Alexander 1999, p. (See Table of books of Judeo-Christian Scripture). Torah The Torah, or “Instruction, ” is also known as the “Five Books” of Moses, thus Chumash from Hebrew meaning “fivesome, ” and Pentateuch from Greek meaning five scroll-cases. The Torah comprises the following five books:1. Deuteronomy, DtDevarim The Hebrew book titles come from the first words in the respective texts. The Hebrew title for Numbers, however, comes from the fifth word of that text. The Torah focuses on three moments in the changing relationship between God and people. The first eleven chapters of Genesis provide accounts of the creation (or ordering) of the world, and the history of God’s early relationship with humanity. The remaining thirty-nine chapters of Genesis provide an account of God’s covenant with the Hebrew patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (also called Israel), and Jacob’s children (the “Children of Israel”), especially Joseph. It tells of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home in the city of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan, and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt. The remaining four books of the Torah tell the story of Moses, who lived hundreds of years after the patriarchs. His story coincides with the story of the liberation of the Children of Israel from slavery in Ancient Egypt, to the renewal of their covenant with God at Mount Sinai, and their wanderings in the desert until a new generation would be ready to enter the land of Canaan. The Torah ends with the death of Moses. The Torah contains the commandments, of God, revealed at Mount Sinai (although there is some debate amongst Jewish scholars, if this was written down completely in one moment, or if it was spread out during the 40 years in the wandering in the desert). These commandments provide the basis for Halakha (Jewish religious law). Tradition states that the number of these is equal to 613 Mitzvot or 613 commandments. There is some dispute as to how to divide these up (mainly between the Ramban and Rambam). The Torah is divided into fifty-four portions which are read in turn in Jewish liturgy, from the beginning of Genesis to the end of Deuteronomy, each Sabbath. The cycle ends and recommences at the end of Sukkot, which is called Simchat Torah. The Tanakh (Hebrew:) (IPA: [tanax] or [tnax]; also Tenakh or Tenak) is the Bible used in Judaism. The name “Tanakh” is a Hebrew acronym formed from the initial Hebrew letters of the Tanakh’s three traditional subdivisions: The Torah (“Teaching, ” also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi’im (“Prophets”) and Ketuvim (“Writings”) – hence TaNaKh. The elements of the Tanakh are incorporated in various forms in Christian Bibles, in which, with some variations, it is called the Old Testament. ” According to the Talmud, much of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the “Men of the Great Assembly by 450 BCE, and have since remained unchanged. Modern scholars are less certain, but believe that the process of canonization of the Tanakh became finalized between 200 BCE and 200 CE The Hebrew text was originally an abjad: consonants written with some applied vowel letters (“matres lectionis”). During the early Middle Ages scholars known as the Masoretes created a single formalized system of vocalization. This was chiefly done by the Family Ben Asher, in the Tiberius school, based on the oral tradition for reading the Tanakh. It also included some of Ben Naftali and Babylonian innovations. Despite the comparatively late process of codification, some traditional sources and some Orthodox Jews believe the pronunciation and cantillation derive from the revelation at Sinai, since it is impossible to read the original text without pronunciations and cantillation pauses. The combination of a text , pronunciation and cantillation enable the reader to understand both the simple meaning, as well as the nuances in sentence flow of the text. The Tanakh is also called Mikra or Miqra (, meaning “reading” or “that which is read”). The three-part division reflected in the acronym “Tanakh” is well attested to in documents from the Second Temple period and in Rabbinic literature. During that period, however, “Tanakh” was not used as a word or term. Instead, the proper title was Mikra, because the biblical texts were read publicly. “Mikra” is thus analogous to the Latin term Scriptus, meaning “that which is written” (as in “Scripture” or “The Holy Scriptures”). Mikra continues to be used in Hebrew to this day alongside Tanakh to refer to the Hebrew scriptures. In modern spoken Hebrew both are used interchangeably. According to the Talmud (Bava Basra 14b-15a, Rashi to Megillah 3a, 14a), much of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the Men of the Great Assembly (“Anshei K’nesset HaGedolah”) a task completed in 450 BCE, and have remained unchanged since that date. Modern scholars are less certain, but believe that the process of canonization of the Tanakh became finalized between 200 BCE and 200 CE. Both the Torah and the Prophets appear to have been codified by the time of the composition of the book of Sirach, c. 180 BCE; but the Writings may not yet have become an identified unit by this date. Formal closure of the canon has often been ascribed to Rabbinic Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Heinrich Graetz proposed in 1871 that it was concluded at a Council of Jamnia (or Yavne in Hebrew), some time in the period 7090 CE. However, Rabbinical writings seem to indicate that certain books were disputed as accepted canon (such as Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs and Esther), it may not necessarily be the case. The implication of the Talmud indicates that the books themselves were already accepted canon, but may have been misunderstood on philosophical or ecclesiastical grounds. The Talmud eliminates this misunderstanding. The twenty-four books are also mentioned in the Midrash Koheleth 12:12. A slightly different accounting can be found in the book Against Apion, by the 1st-century Jewish historian Josephus, who describes 22 sacred books. Some scholars have suggested that he considered Ruth part of Judges, and Lamentations part of Jeremiah; as the Christian translator Jerome recorded in the 4th century CE. Other scholars suggest that at the time Josephus wrote, such books as Esther and Ecclesiastes were not yet considered canonical. The Tanakh is an acronym of the initial Hebrew letters of the Tanakh’s three traditional subdivisions: Torah, Nevi’im and Ketuvim. According to Jewish tradition, the Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. The Tanakh counts as one book what are sometimes counted as two in Christian Bibles e. 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings and so forth, and counts Trei Asar (, the Twelve Prophets; though literally, “twelve”) as a single book. Torah (, literally “teaching”) consists of the first five books of the Bible, commonly referred to as the Five Books of Moses. ” Printed versions of the Torah are often called Chamishei Chumshei Torah (, literally the “five fifths of the Torah”), and informally “a Chumash. Genesis [/ Breishit] 2. Exodus [/ Shmot] 3. Leviticus [/ Vayikra] 4. Numbers [/ Bamidbar] 5. Deuteronomy [/ D’varim] The Hebrew names of the books of the Torah are based on the first prominent word in each book. The English names are not translations of the Hebrew, but are rather Greek names created for the Septuagint which are, in turn, based on Rabbinic names describing the thematic content of each of the Books. Nevi’im (, “Prophets”) consists of eight books. This division includes the books which, as a whole, cover the chronological era from the entrance of the Israelites into the Land until the Babylonian captivity of Judah (the “period of prophecy”). However, they exclude Chronicles, which covers the same period. The Nevi’im are often divided into the Earlier Prophets , which are generally historical in nature, and the Later Prophets , which contain more exhortational prophecies. Although most versions of the Old Testamet count the number of books as totalling 21, counting the books of Samuel and Kings as two books each, and the “Twelve Prophets” (or the minor prophets) as 12 books, Jewish tradition does not:6. Joshua [/ Y’hoshua] 7. Judges [/ Shophtim] 8. Samuel (I & II) [/ Sh’muel] 9. Kings (I & II) [/ M’lakhim] 10. Isaiah [/ Y’shayahu] 11. Jeremiah [/ Yir’mi’yahu] 12. Ezekiel [/ Y’khezqel] 13. The Twelve Prophets a. Hosea [/ Hoshea] b. Joel [/ Yo’el] c. Amos [/ Amos] d. Obadiah [/ Ovadyah] e. Jonah [/ Yonah] f. Micah [/ Mikhah] g. Nahum [/ Nakhum] h. Zephaniah [/ Ts’phanyah] j. Haggai [/ Khagai] k. Zechariah [/ Z’kharyah] l. Malachi [/ Mal’akhi] Ketuvim (, “Writings”) or “scriptures”, are sometimes also known by the Greek title “Hagiographa” and consists of eleven books. These encompass all the remaining books, and include the Five Scrolls. They are sometimes also divided into such categories as Sifrei Emet (, literally “Books of Truth”) of Psalms, Proverbs and Job (the Hebrew names of these three books form the Hebrew word for “truth” as an acrostic, and all three books have unique cantillation marks), the “wisdom books” of Job, Ecclesiastes, and Proverbs, the “poetry books” of Psalms, Lamentations and Song of Solomon, and the “historical books” of Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles. In the Jewish version, Ketuvim consists of eleven books, counting Ezra and Nehemiah as one book and I and II Chronicles as a single book. The “Sifrei Emet, ” “Books of Truth”:14. Psalms [/ Tehilim] 15. Proverbs [/ Mishlei] 16. Job [/ Iyov] The “Five Megilot” or “Five Scrolls”:17. Song of Songs [/ Shir Hashirim] 18. Ruth [/ Rut] 19. Lamentations [/ Eikhah] 20. Ecclesiastes [/ Kohelet] 21. Esther [/ Esther] The rest of the “Writings”:22. Daniel [/ Dani’el] 23. Ezra-Nehemiah [/ Ezra v’Nekhemia] 24. Chronicles (I & II) [/ Divrei Hayamim] The chapter divisions and verse numbers have no significance in the Jewish tradition. Nevertheless, they are noted in all modern editions of the Tanakh so that verses may be located and cited. The division of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles into parts I and II is also indicated on each page of those books in order to prevent confusion about whether a chapter number is from part I or II, since the chapter numbering for these books follows their partition in the Christian textual tradition. The adoption of the Christian chapter divisions by Jews began in the late Middle Ages in Spain, partially in the context of forced clerical debates which took place against a background of harsh persecution and of the Spanish Inquisition (the debates required a common system for citing biblical texts). From the standpoint of the Jewish textual tradition, the chapter divisions are not only a foreign feature with no basis in the mesorah, but are also open to severe criticism of two kinds:The chapter divisions often reflect Christian exegesis of the Bible. Even when they do not imply Christian exegesis, the chapters often divide the biblical text at numerous points that may be deemed inappropriate for literary or other reasons. They ignore the accepted closed and open space division which are based on the mesorahNevertheless, because they proved useful for citations, they are often continued to be included by Jews in most Hebrew editions of the biblical books. For more information on the origin of these divisions, see chapters and verses of the Bible. Jews however don’t necessarily reference the specific verse in a chapter (older editions of the Talmud cite only chapter numbers) and some works cite the sectional divisions in the Torah. The chapter and verse numbers were often indicated very prominently in older editions, to the extent that they overshadowed the traditional Jewish masoretic divisions. However, in many Jewish editions of the Tanakh published over the past forty years, there has been a major historical trend towards minimizing the impact and prominence of the chapter and verse numbers on the printed page. Most editions accomplish this by removing them from the text itself and relegating them to the margins of the page. The main text in these editions is unbroken and uninterrupted at the beginning of chapters (which are noted only in the margin). The lack of chapter breaks within the text in these editions also serves to reinforce the visual impact created by the spaces and “paragraph” breaks on the page, which indicate the traditional Jewish parashah divisions. Some versions have even introduced a new chapter systemThese modern Jewish editions present Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles (as well as Ezra) as single books in their title pages, and make no indication inside the main text of their division into two parts (though it is noted in the upper and side margins). In such editions, the second books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles follow the respective first books on the very same page, with no special break at all in the flow of the text. In the case of Kings, in which no parashah division appears at this point, the text of II Kings continues that of I Kings on the very same line of text. Jewish (Hebrew) editions have a different pattern regarding Chronicles (I Chronicles) chapters 5 and 6. In I Chronicles (in Christian sources) chapter 5 ends at verse 41. Chronicles (Jewish editions of Chronicles) 5:27-41 is equivalent to First Chronicles 6: 1-15 in most English translations. In Jewish (Hebrew) editions 6:1 is equivalent to 6:16 and therefore the chapter ends at Chronicles 6:66 instead of the First Chronicles 6:81 (English translations) and at 7:1 both Hebrew and English versions set off from the same starting point once more. This difference offsets other more contextual differences. The Jewish Tanakh is based on an accepted traditional understanding of the text. For example, Christians translate the word almah as “virgin, ” while the translation in the Tanakh is young maiden. This Christian view is based on a different understanding of the Septuagint translation, Greek: which according to New Testament Scholars, can mean “a marriageable maiden” or virgin. Umberto Cassuto, also known as Moshe David Cassuto, (1883 – 1951), was a rabbi and biblical scholar born in Florence, Italy. He studied there at the university and the Collegio Rabbinico. After getting a degree and Semicha, he taught in both institutions. From 1914 to 1925, he was chief rabbi of Florence. In 1925 he became professor of Hebrew and literature in the University of Florence and then took the chair of Hebrew language at the University of Rome La Sapienza. When the 1938 anti-Semitic laws forced him from this position, he moved to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Umberto’s son Nathan was also a rabbi in Florence. He went into hiding during World War II, was betrayed and perished in the Nazi death camps. Nathan’s wife and children were saved and emigrated to Israel. One child, the architect David Cassuto (born 1938), played a key role in rebuilding the Jewish quarter in the old city of Jerusalem. In the 1990s he was for some years deputy mayor of Jerusalem. For two hundred years prior to Cassuto’s works, the origin of the five books of Moses (the Torah) had been one of the most-argued subjects in biblical scholarship. The 19th century in particular had been a time of great progress, but also of great controversy, with many theories being put forward. The one which eventually emerged to dominate the field was a particularly comprehensive version of the documentary hypothesis put forward by Julius Wellhausen in 1878: indeed, so great was its dominance that by the first half of the 20th century the Wellhausen hypothesis had become synonymous with the documentary hypothesis, and the issue of Pentateuchal origins was regarded as settled. Cassuto’s The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch (Hebrew, Torat HaTeudot, 1941; English translation, 1961) was one of the first mainstream works to offer a detailed critique of Wellhausen, rejecting both the central idea of the documentary model – that the Pentateuch had its origins in originally separate documents which had been combined by an editor into the final text – and Wellhausen’s dating, which saw the four sources being composed between 950 and 550 BC with the final redaction around 450 BC. In place of this, Cassuto proposed the Pentateuch was written down as a single, unified text in the 10th century BC and not thereafter altered in any meaningful way. The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch criticized the adherents of the documentary hypothesis for ignoring the cognate literatures and archaeological evidence and for not keeping an eye on critical methods at work in other fields e. Homeric studies, and suggested that disagreements over questions such as whether P or D was the latest stratum pointed toward the instability of the theory over-all. An example of Cassuto’s style of argument can be seen in his discussion of the divine names – one of the main criteria by which the documentary hypothesis distinguishes between separate sources – where he argued that Yahweh and Elohim are each consistently employed within a particular context and for a specific purpose, “Yahweh” signifying the God of Israel and “Elohim” the God of the world: to construe the two names as evidence of two authors was, according to Cassuto, to ignore the evidence of Jewish literature. Cassuto’s criticisms were dismissed by the overwhelming majority of scholars at the time. Scholars such as Rolf Rendtorff and John Van Seters have put forward theories on Pentateuchal origins very like Cassuto’s, at least insofar as their views on its mode of composition are concerned. Modern ideas about the dating of the Torah, however, have not endorsed Cassuto, and the trend today is for the final act of composition to be seen as lying in the period 500-400 BC, or even later. Cassuto saw the need to produce the most accurate possible text of the Tanakh. He realised that the texts generally published had mostly been edited by non-Jews, and Jews who had converted to Christianity. While Cassuto saw no reason to believe that major alterations had been made, it was important to compare these printed editions with older manuscripts as a check. Thus Cassuto sought out the oldest and most reliable manuscripts of the Tanakh, dating back many centuries before the invention of printing. In particular in 1944, he managed to visit the Great Synagogue of Aleppo, Syria and study the Aleppo Codex. He was one of the very few scholars to study this key manuscript before most of the Torah section disappeared. His research showed that the printed Bibles generally have an accurate text. However, he corrected the spelling of many words, and made very many corrections to the vowel points and musical notes. He also revised the layout of the text, its division into paragraphs, the use of poetical lines when appropriate (see the books of Psalms, Proverbs and Job) and similar matters. Where he differs from other Bibles in any of these respects, it is likely that Cassuto has better authority. The Bible was published posthumously in 1953. However, his most enduring legacy may be his commentaries on the Hebrew Bible. He wrote a Hebrew commentary on the Bible that is very popular in Israel. He wrote a more detailed commentary on Exodus and at the time of his death had completed chapters 1-11 of a more detailed commentary on Genesis; both of these latter commentaries are available in English and, not surprisingly, reflect his views on the Documentary Hypothesis. The item “Military RARE IDF BIBLE Book METAL ART COVER Israel EMBLEM Jewish JUDAICA Hebrew” is in sale since Tuesday, June 22, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Religion & Spirituality\Judaism\Books”. The seller is “judaica-bookstore” and is located in TEL AVIV. This item can be shipped worldwide.
- Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel
- Religion: Judaism