This is indeed a RARE FIND. A beautiful book , Throughout illustrated , Being an ODD FIRST AID GUIDE BOOK to the ERETZ ISRAELI First Aid teams and PARAMEDICS teams. Written entirely in RHYMES by Hannanyah Reichman. Throughout illustrated by the FINE ART ARTIST : DAVID SCHNEUER. The book was published in 1942 in TEL AVIV Eretz Israel (Then also refered to as Palestine) , During the British Mandate regime , More than 6 years before the independent STATE of ISRAEL was established and before its 1948 WAR of INDEPENDENCE. Published by the “MAGEN DAVID ADOM” (RED DAVID SHIELD – MADA or MDA – Israeli REDCROSS). NUMEROUS illustrations demonstrating the various FIRST AID activities. The book was ORIGINALY writen in Hebrew for the use of the ERETZ ISRAELI first aid teams. The somewhat ARTISTIC illustrations were especialy created for this Eretz Israeli edition , They are certainly NOT an adaptation from foreign editions of various foreign FIRST AID books. Nicely bound original HC. (Pls look at scan for images – Kindly note that the copy for sale doesn’t have the foxing stains and it is in general much better shape than the acanned copy) Will be sent inside a protective rigid packaging. Book will be sent inside a protective packaging. David Schneuer, a resident of Tel Aviv for the past 50 years, is immersed simultaneously in all the circumstances that make up his biography. His painting, however, is located somewhere outside the chronological sequence of art history. His enigmatic personality stands in stark contrast to his flowing imagination, to the pictorial diary unfolding before us in hundreds of pages, as an endless variation on a single, obsessive image. Schneuer peeps at the world, at his past and at the present only to return to his private world, conscious of, but uninvolved in times, places and situations. His feelings towards them have dissolved, they continue to exist through his imagination, out of a need to connect a restricted living-space with the outside world, reluctantly establishing minimal mutual relations. The images, however profuse and voluptuous, are alienated from external reality, as if rendered immune from it. And only its echoes penetrate the cloak of hermeticity in which he is wrapped. It should not be assumed from the above, however, that there is anything oppressive about his art. Is it introverted then? Its configurations, devoted to the depiction of a very specific kind of society, are cast in a mould that fits the play instinct of a man who is not involved with his fellow-men. Both artist and his work are removed from any social context. And when his art does contain a statement on society, it is essentially sensuous and intuitive in its expression, existing mainly by force of inertia. Timeless and nameless, its starting point is always in the unknown. It is a course of continuous accumulation. Accumulated experience, accumulated memories and images, accumulated fresh starts. Nevertheless, both his life and art seem completely devoid of nostalgia. His creative energy has left behind a series of disconnections. Its vitality springs from the new beginnings. The past was filtered through it, crystallizing into an airtight present the present of a veteran artist who, as mentioned above, does not concern himself with contemporary art anyway. The majority of the Tel Aviv art galleries are concentrated at walking distance from his home, but Schneuer keeps away from them. He professes not to be an intellectual. With the same touch of irony he claims to be a craftsman, and more seriously – a craftsman who paints for pleasure In his top-floor Tel Aviv apartment, the artist’ who paints for pleasure has a “closed balcony” like thousands of others, unifying gaping house-fronts in the Bauhausiau city which functions as a studio. Its drawers overflow with hundreds of sketches, drawings and paintings, as well as postersand photographs a medley of evidence of the craftsman’s many years of versatile work. The alls of his spacious, very simply furnished living-room, however, are reserved for a display of his resent work: a few dozen paintings, a small cavalcade that Schneuer hangs to please himself, continually replacing the paintings with others. These are a few examples of the late phase of his life and art, less than 20 years, devoted in the main painting. His only language after 50 years in Tel Aviv is German, and he speaks broken Hebrew. Most of is acquaintances – artists as well as others – were Yekkes like himself, and a minority were of Polish extraction. Almost all were, in varying degrees, refugees of the Nazi regime, and almost ill are now dead. “The Poles regarded me as a Yekke, and the Yekkes as a Pole”, recalls Schneuer. Today he speaks with a touch of nostalgia of being born in the town of Przemisl, although he does not remember a thing about it. His father was born there, and his mother, a peasant’s daughter, was from a neighbouring village. Przemisl, situated in Galicia, was in those days a Polish town under Austrian rule, “a place inhabited by Poles, Russians, Austrians, and what have you”. Among its Jews, constituting about one-third of the population, there were many tradesmen. David was born in, 1905. In his early childhood the family, on its way to America, delayed in Hamburg, and eventually settled for good in Munich. My father, a handsome man, belonged to the middle intelligentsia. He had studied in a Yeshiva and knew his Talmud. He wanted to be a writer, but was forced by circumstances to become a businessman. His German was faultless, “whereas my mother spoke a mixture of German and Yiddish”, When his father was conscripted into the army during the First World War, his mother brought up the children, eking out an existence from a dress shop. “I went to a Catholic school and grew up to some extent at home, and more in the streets, playing with the Bavarian children of the neighbourhood”. Towards the end of his studies at the OBERREALSCHULE (secondary school), Schneuer was a member both pf BAR KOCHBA, a non-Zionist Jewish sports club, and of BLAU-WEISS, an association preparing its members for Zipnist activity. This framework, Schneuer was sent to East Prussia and trained in assorted farming chores: loading the harvest on horses, sowing potatoes. Schneuer underwent some of the formative experiences of his life before the age of 20. Eanwhile, he did not know whether to be a German, a German Jew or a Zionist Jew, a farmer or a merchant. Of medium height and broad-shouldered, diligent, and energetic, he was destined to become a craftsaman. Farming was actually my first preparation for craftsmanship, Says Schneuer. The turn of events, combined with his intuition and strong sensuality, were to make the craftsman onto an artist. Upon returning from Prussia he took to lettering and painting signboards for Jewish shops in Munich. He spent six months with a sign painter in Berlin. Upon returning to Munich he applied to the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of arts and crafts) in the Louisenstrasse. Schneuer relates: Professor Richard Klein, who was in charge of the Munchner Konstlerfeste, assigned us to design a poster for the event. I submitted two sketches and was thrown out of school for insufficient talent, only to discover that the actual poster announcing the Kunstlerfeste was based on one of my sketches. From there he went on to the Berufsschule (vocational school) in the Werkenriederstrasse, under the direction of professor Ruckert. It was a good school where I learned to make decorative designs. To support himself during his studies, he designed expressionist and simple posters. Among his Munich friends was Georg Gidal brother of the well-known photographer Tim Gidal, and a photographer in his own right. He persuaded Schneuer to go to Paris. Schneuer followed his advice. For no particular reason. I arrived in Paris with a Scanty knowledge of French, laboriously acquired during six years of study. A friend found me a hotel in Montparnasse. For half a year I lived in a room on the sixth floor, a tiny room with a tiny table. In the evenings I would sit drawing from my imagination, and during the day I roamed the streets. Most of the drawings he did in Paris disappeared together with his books after his release from Dachau. Upon his return to Munich once more taking the advice of Georg Gidal he introduced himself at the Munchnern Kammerspiele Im Schauspielhuse, and was engaged at the theater. The first part of his artistic career had begun. It was to come to an end five years later, in 1932. There probably could not exist a more intimate relationship than that which was Forged between the Munich Schauspielhaus and its staff in the years preceding the rise of Nazism. It bore the imprint of a social and cultural, no less than political, destiny. The kammerspiele and the schauspielhaus companies were merged only in 1926, i. A few months before Schneuer began working at the theatre, but their history dates back to the early pan of the century. The monchner kammerspiele company was established in 1911. Hugo Ball, one of the founders of Zurich dada during tKe First World War, was its Dramaturg in 1913. From the mid-twenties, prominent names in German theatre were linked to the Munchner Kammerspiele; Otto Falckenberg functioned as its manager in 1927, seconded by the lawyer Adolf Kaufmann, the producer Julius Gell-ner and the first Dramaturg Heinrich Fischer in leading managerial tasks. Robert Forster-Larrinaga, Richard Revy and Josef diickmann produced and Otto Reigbert was the first stage designer. Among the actors there were distinguished names like Therese Giehse, Wolfgang Liebendner, Hans Schweikart and Kurt Horwitz the character actor playing the parts of heroes and lovers. There was no fixed cast, however, and everyone tried his hand at almost everything Following the “Brecht period”, some of the troupe members gathered around the social critic and poet Karl Kraus, editor of the satirical periodical Du Faekel, The year 1933 was to bring about the dispersal of this dosely-knit group. Like several Munich intellectuals – the writers Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Brono Frank and Alfred Neumann, the editor of Smpbcissimus T. Heine, the painters George Schrimpf, Karl Zcrbc and Richard Lindner, and tfie typographer Hans Tschihold – some of the foremost members of the company, among them the Jews Julius Gellner, Therese Giehse, Kurt Horwitz and David Schneuer, would leave Germany. Gellner was to produce the play Das Schuie-ttischt Z&ndholz in January 1933, and then depart for Prague, Therese Giehse, making her last appearance in the play, would find refuge in Zurich, Horwitz was to disappear after performing in Der Hiimul Europas in July 1933, and so was David Schneuer – after painting his last playbill for Lumpaci Vagdbundus in October 1932. But Jet us return to the year 1927. How did Schneuer come to be taken on at the theatre? He recalls being sent to Falckenbcrg and showing him the drawings he had brought back from Paris, According to Schncuer, Falckenberg at the time was working on the adaptation of Frank Wede-kind’s play Lulu. He asked me if I was familiar with Lulu. I read it in the evening and the next day I made a black-and-white drawing, spontaneously giving expression to my perception of the plot. Heine, two giants and little me. Fakkenberg fastened the Drawing onto the door, and they both studied it and praised me for it I was engaged on the spot. ” His assignment was to “make the placards, texts and pictures, for the theatre-front in Maximilian-strasse. But after only a few weeks he was offered the opportunity to make a poster for Edgar Wallace’s play Der Hexer. The sets for this production were designed by Otto Reigbert, one of Germany’s most prominent stage designers, who worked at the kammersfjele throughout the twenties. His designs included the powerful Expressionist-Cubist sets for Bertold Brecht’s Trom-mcin in derNacht in 1922. By 1927, when Schneuer started to work tinder him, Reigbert w/as top stage designer at the theatre. It is difficult to make a step-by-step reconstruction of Schncuer’s career as playbill and stage designer during his years at the kammerspiele. The theatre archives were confiscated and virtually destroyed after the Second World War. Schneuer has the following to say about his work as designer of playbills:’The kammerspiele was a repertory theatre, producing a large number of plays. If the first performance was a success I was asked to design a poster. I would get down to work immediately after opening night, so that it would be possible to put the poster up the following day. I was expected to finish it by ten in the morning, and sometimes they called on me already at nine. I was a virtuoso craftsman, often completing the work within twenty minutes I worked in the courtyard. I remember how I would pass through it in the! Company of the carpenter, and Gellner would glance at the poster from his window. Then we’d go and put it up. The fact that the Schauspielhaus was suffering from financial difficulties in those years was evident not only in the cautious policy in the preparations of playbills. For various reasons, partly of a cultural and political nature, the theatre in the Maximiliansrasse failed to repeat its successes from the period in the Augustusstrasse and was forced to combine “quality” plays with box-office hits. The frugality included the playbills; I myself executed the linocuts of my posters, having to make do with two or three colours. Later on someone else printed the linocuts. Munich in the twenties was a city of excellent osier designers, Karl Arnold, Josef Seche, Herlann Ketmal, Max Eschle, Julius Ussy Engelhard, Ludwig Hohlwein, Hans Tschihold, and Paul Renner among them. All their works commercial asters, fashion and sports posters as well as art posters – were printed in the lithograph technique. Schneuer was probably one of the few, and certainly one of the first, Munich artists to make linocuts. How did Schneuer come to use it? He says: Once I saw a capital letter cut in lino in a printing office. I decided to employ the technique for a poster, and found it easy to work in. The Munich poster designers were excellent typographers. Tschihold, the author of Die Neue typograpkie (Berlin, 1928), Renner, Karl Arnold and Rene Binder were eminent representatives of Constructivist typography, uniting geometric form and lettering, a vanguard typography that had already gained ground all over Europe. Keimel, Seche, Eschle and Hohlwein, on the other hand, established design and lettering as separate hut equal element? Of the poster, closer in spirit to “Art Deco” than to pure Constructivism, whereas the style of Engelhard was illustrative and related to the traditional “fin de siecle” design. The expressionist style predominating in Seche’s posters of the early twenties, was almost completely to disappear from Munich posters towards the end of that decade, although traces of it can still be distinguished in the sets of the plays that were staged at its theatres. Schneuer’s posters, too, were based on an equal treatment of design and lettering, and their combination is primarily an expression of his spontaneous approach and flair for improvisation. Both qualities, in his opinion, accounted for his ability to meet the pressing tune limits, to carry out die shortened route from the quick outline to the printing of the posters from the linoleum block. To a large extent the fast process determined his characteristic style, but it only partly explains it. Schneuer was familiar with the art styles prevalent in Munich at the time, particularly the style common to several of the graphic; artists working for its magazines – caricaturists, illustrators and Advertisement designers Among the exhibition that be saw he refers in general terms to the expressionist ones, but emphasizes his interest in the Neue Sachlichkeit artists, Schrimpf, Dix and Grozs. This shows that he was not particularly curious about modernistic painting and documents his predilection for themes of a human and social character. Schneuer acknowledges that he liked to study copies of Simplicissimus and the drawings of Pascin which were reproduced in it. But not only the drawings of Pascin, one surmises, since the last of these seems to have been published in this magazine in November 1926. By the late twenties, it featured drawings by the editor, T. Heine-who was at home at the Schauspielhous M. Frinchmann, whose figures at times reveal a Pscin-like sensuousness, E. Schilling, the poster designer Karl Arnold, and Wilhelm Schultz, E. Gulbransson, the greatest of them all in Schneuers estimation. The stylized character of the figures in Schneuers posters based primarily on an elegant, sensuous and exuberantly humorous outline, And on a surface pattern of positive and negative shape, recalls the mischievous and erotic spirit prevailing not only among Simplicissimus illustrators, but on the pages of other Munich magazines as well, such as the prestigious Munchner Jugend and the popular weekly Munchner Illustrierte Presse. Illustration and advertising, drawing and photography merged in a new world, offering an abundance of pleasure luxury articles to the bourgeois consumer. The Jugend magazine of 1927, and the Munchner Illustrierte Presse featured photo-reportages from Paris. The twenties launched a choice of exotically performs and there were Casanova and Der Rosenkavalier cigarettes, so called after Richard Strauss opera. The ideal beauty was represented by American film stars. In this realm between illustration and advertisement, eroticism reigned supreme. In the Munchner Illustrierte Presse, photographs of women were headlined Amerikanische Sconheitsinvasion, and the advertisements for a brand of perfume contrasted two types of feminine beauty under the slogan Was sagt die alte Venus zur neven Venus? The smiling woman and the femme fatale vied for the favour of the consumer, a modern woman, at once sporty and stripped. Even when she cuddled a baby in her arms, the camera exposed her hips. In 1928, Franz von Stuck, the creator of Salome (Lenbachhaus, 1906) the artist who established the Academy style, according to Schneuer died His brand of eroticism continued to fertilize the imagination, however, and its influence was fully recognizable on the pages of magazines. There no longer seemed to be any trace of Kandinsky, who had worked in Munich until 1914. True, below the surface of the bourgeois culture, celebrating day to day life, there was the activity of intellectuals like Thomas Mann and artists of the Neue Sachlichkeit, who examined the fate of common man. It is also true that the basic messege of Simplicissimus, reproducing the drawings of Geoge Grosz and Alfred Kubin, was social and political. But this activity was submerged in the manic culture of consumption. Munich theatre, more than anything, reflected the tention between the two extremes. From 1927 to 1932 they could offered a wide repertory, ranging from pure entertainment to plays defending freedom of expression. In the early twenties, the citys three main theatres served as vehicles for the staging of modern literary dramas. From 1928, however, avant-garde plays (among them dramas dealing with political issues) met with hostile reactions. While the prestige of Reinhardt stood him in good stead when he visited Munich with his company, performing Dantons Tod in 1929, and Diener zwieier Herren in 1931, on the opening night of Ernst Kreneks opera Johnny spielt auf at the Gartnertheater (June 1928), Nazi hoodlums bombardwd the stage with stink bomb. The attempt to set up a proletarian thetre faild, and another attempt to establish an anti-Nazi literary cabaret (featuring Therese Giehse) did not come off either. At the other extreme, Ralph Benatzkys musical comedy Im weissen Rossel at the Deutsches theater scored the greatest success of those years. The Kammerspiele had to struggle against financial difficulties as well as against the illicit censorship. Its repertory was a combination of social comedies, classic and modern dramas, particularly after 1931, when the theatre merged with the Munchner Volkstheater, which specialized in light and musical comedies. Little visual documentation of the activity of these two theatres has arrived: a few stage and actor photographs and posters. The only evidence of the stage sets and costumes that Schneuer designed for their productions more than 10 sets in 1931 alone is found in reviews in the daily papers between 1930 and 1932: a variety of popular and musical comedies, such as Das Kamel geht durch das nadelohr by Franstisek Langer (KAM Merspiele, March 1930), Soeben Erschienen by Eduard Bourdet (Kammerspiele, probably January 1931), Der Brotverdiener, after somerset Maugham (Kammerspiele, July 1931), Madam hot Ausgang (Volkstheater; authors name and dates unknown to us), etc. Much as these reviews praise Schneuer, they do not yield any significant information about his work. Schneuer on his part relates that he gained his experience in this field assisting Otto Reigbert the professional scene-painter, in executing his stage sets. The tracing of Schneuers activity as poster designer is more tangible, albeit partial. At least the few surviving posters in Tel-Aviv can give us an indication of their character and range. The earliest of these is a poster that he designed for Edgar Wallaces play Der Hexer, which was performed at the Kammerspiele on 20 September 1927 in a production by Foster-Larrinage. It already shows full mastery both of the technique of linocut and of surface design. We have already mentioned the stylistic versatility, matching the style of the power with its spirit. For Joseph Ruderers play Die Morgenrote, which was performed on 3 August 1932 in a production by Kurt Horwitz. Schneuer designed a poster in the best 19th century tradition of popular illustration. Doubtless the action, set in Munich in 1848 required a conservative approach, both stylistically and in the relationship between text and picture, the latter taking up most of the poster surface. In contrast, the poster that Schneuer designed for the Dreigroschenoper, written and composed by Bertold Brecht and Kurt Weill in 1928. The protagonists of the drama are beggars. The mischievous humour mocking the characters of a vaudeville show is here replaced by the realization of a human drama, achieved by purely pictorial means: the destiny of the protagonists reflect in the intensity of the colouring and dense figure composition. The style is expressionistic, and the sentiment the same as that which moved the painters of the Neue Sachlichkeit. The emotional intensity of this poster is exceptional, and it is found only in a few of his drawings from the same period. The Dreigroschenoper was performed at the Kammerspiele on 20 July 1929, produced by Schweikart, and with the original sets designed for the Berlin production by Casper Neher. Schneuers part in the production included the creation of dolls and a series of drawings witch were screened on the backdrop. In November 1933 Schneuer found himself walking along Allenby Street in Tel Aviv like “Gulliver among die Lilliputians”. The eclectic style of the city, barely 25 years old, lent it an almost historical air, somewhere between Orientalism and the style of Eastern Europe. But the newly arrived immigrants from Germany, highly educated and employed in the liberal professions, brought with them the new BAUHAUS style of architecture -plain, unadorned, white three-storeyed houses, all but unknown in conservative Munich – and the suburbs of the “white city” began to indent the coastal dunes at a rapid rate. The Munich period had come to an end in the first part of the same year. Schneuer was arrested, whether because of his Jewishness, or because of his Communist sympathies, and deported to Dachau. A month and a half later the emigration certificate to Palestine, obtained by the instrumentality of Tim Gidal, arrived from Berlin, and Schneuer got up and left. Here again we are in need of Schneuer’s testimony in order to reconstruct the story of his life and work. However, as he likes to intertwine people and events in his reminiscences, and as he usually puts at most only his signature on his drawings, we have to go by the dates on which the posters appeared, cafes and hotels were opened, ships were launched and his friends immigrated to the country, in order to bring works of art and events together in time. 1965, and 1965 to the present. It is possible to define the first period as an adjustment to everyday life and to the dynamics of the rapidly emerging culture. This was a period of prosperity, culminating in the Levant Fair of 1934. The fourth , and final period is characterized by a gradual abandoning of applied graphics and of work in collaboration with architects, and by seclusion in the studio. Schneuer in 1935 was hard pressed to earn a living. The “Yekkes” with whom he mingled could offer him no more than “good advice”. He designed cigarette placards which appeared on the Tel Aviv kiosks, and from 1936 he was employed in the office of Ettlinger, an advertising agent producing newspaper and industrial advertisements. Both belonged to the foremost Constructive! Typography which went hand in hand with the new architecture of Tel Aviv. Schneuer, however, missed the human figure and brought it back, sensuous and smiling, from 1939 onwards in works commissioned by the O. This boyish figure, one of the most popular images on the Israeli advertising scene, has survived to this very day, likable and nameless – a “Sabra” of “Yekkish” parentage. During and after the war, Schneuer continued to design a series of advertising campaigns in the newspapers. Schneuer liked to work in his home at No. 3 Bograshov Street, near the sea: I couldn’t stay long in the O. I would arrive, make some sketches for Frau Kaufman and leave. He worked fast, almost hastily, an impetuous virtuoso. His, elegant line was exuberantly humourous, and Schneuer playfully exploited it for various purposes, outlining a rather complex composition with , forceful strokes, drawing a figure directly with a! Rounded, sensuous line, almost without lifting his j hand from the paper, with the assuredness of one ; who plans ahead, aiming at a simple and direct’ image. The circumstances which caused him to design posters also offered him the first sustained experience as an artist long before he would be able to dedicate all his time to painting: in 1938 the graphic artist found himself out of a job and went to Jerusalem. With great effort he secured a scholarship from the JEWISH AGENCY “for the purpose of studying with Steinhardt”. The Expressionist artist and the virtuoso draughtsman had nothing at all in common, but Schneuer made use of Steinhardt’s friendship, the time at his disposal, and his creative urge, to draw from the model every day in the latter’s spacious studio behind the yard of the BEZAJLEL School of Art and Crafts. From around 1938, however, Schneuer invested his wall decorations with definite graphic characteristics in style and execution, concentrating on pure elements of design in order to create atmosphere in a specific spatial context. In that year, Cafe PILZ, overlooking the sea, opened, the first cafe in town, according to Schneuer, with a genuinely “European style”. It was planned by the architect Fenichel who commissioned Schneuer to do “wall decorations” for the cafe. The collaboration between the two was to continue for many years – into the early sixties. Somebody once wrote in the PALESTINE POST that “all of Dizengoff (a main street) is full of Schneuer”. He did wall-decorations for hotels, cafes and bars, adapting himself easily to. The customer’s demands and to any style – from a stylized figurative representation to abstraction in the spirit of “Art Deco”. He decorated a bar in Pinsker Street “in the Roman style”. He made decorative designs for hotels such as the DAN CARMEL in Haifa, for the ZIM company’s ships BILU and NILI, built in Antwerp in 1964, and for a big hotel in Abidjan, planned by Fenichel. Without being aware of it, already in these wall decorations Schneuer kept aloof from his time. It seems paradoxical that the more designs he made for public places, the more he withdrew into an imaginary world, increasingly removed from the reality he himself witnessed. Schneuer’s withdrawal from his own times became an accomplished fact with the shift of his artistic activity from applied graphics and. Architectural decoration to painting. The significance of this shift was not limited to the change per se. The message of applied, graphics is inherent in its very function, defined in advance by the mutual interests of client and designer, providing the means for a clear-cut collective impact. The message of art, on the other hand, is primarily the artist’s personal statement. Rests mainly on the not necessarily deliberate’ exposure of various personal strata. It has no, predetermined purpose or unequivocal addressee. The few drawings from the thirties that remain in Schneuer’s portfolio dealt, in an off-hand way, with’the reality in which he himself lived-in a penciled self-portrait – and with the surrounding world, arousing his curiosity – the exoticism of the Arab figures of Jaffa, seen through the eyes of a “Yekke”, Sketchy in execution, they differ from the controlled, purposeful drawing intended for the commercial ads. The keenness of observation is translated into the sensitive line, completely devoid of stylization and schematization. This reality finds another expression in the illustrative line of the Tel! Aviv street scenes, appearing sporadically in the PALESTINE POST The works that Schneuer began in the late sixties – at the onset of his fourth Israeli period – deal less with reality than with its reflection. In these works he takes up images which for a long time have been suppressed, together with the past, at the back of: his mind. The new experiment occurs on a purely existential level, his artistic experience, in all its prior transmutations, having been fundamentally technical in character. True, the human figure in the advertisements is the Very same as that represented in the paintings: stylized, sensuous, performing a part. The same, yet different. The restrictions resulting from a specific purpose are loosened and replaced by freedom of action, and by sheer creative zest, His friend Steinhardt once told him “You will become a good artist – you are not afraid of erasing”. Schneuer, spontaneous as he is, composes his painting quickly, almost hurriedly. First with colour red and blue, toned down to opaque shades of violet, grey, light-blue and Sienna red. If the hue does not seem right to him he wipes it out and starts afresh. Once, painting a ceiling, he began using the remainder of the glue in the bucket “in order to achieve delicate shades”. Now he uses dirty water for the same purpose. “That’s my trick”, says Schneuer. The means the “tricks” – are simple, and employed for the final formulation of the painting. The scene is represented frontally – a theatrical parade of attractive men haunting loose girls in imaginary bars, which Schneuer, shy as he is, probably never frequented; figures from the world of Les Enfants du Paradis, La Boheme, of Baudelaire, of Toulouse-Lautrec, Cheret and Mucha a Munich version of Paris, fashioned in Te! All the figures arc linked, all the elements are joined I into what Schneuer regards as the main thing: “Plasticity and dynamics, balance and line”. “A splash of colour turning into a body”, he adds, “into a face, into hair”. The composition is constructed on two levels – the division of the surface into areas of colour, which are further divided into linear rhythms, groups of figures, a female bust facing the erect, arrogant figure of a man. Both levels not only strike a harmonious chord, but primarily set up a new configuration in which Schneuer’s past as stage designer and illustrator fuses and periods and memories intertwine. “Elegance”, said Raymond Radiguet, the author of Le Diable au Corps, “should look somewhat slovenly”. In Schneuer’s elegant figures, the “slight slovenliness” is expressed in a sense of candid eroticism which accompanies them. Perhaps this elegance is only the outer expression of an ironic ceremony in which the fashionable and ridiculed protagonists parade like actors on a stage. Schneuer admires Picasso, but unlike the latter he remains aloof and does not participate in the lives of his protagonists. In a realm of obsessed imagination, the show must go on. David Schneuer David Schneuer (1905 – 1988) Born in Austro-Hungaria in 1905, David Schneuer lived in Europe between the World Wars. As a result, his works are a unique and timeless testimony of Europe during both that time and the golden period of German Expressionism. After graduation from the Munchner Kunstgewerbeschule (The Munich School of Arts and Crafts) he moved to Paris, where he collaborated with many leading artists. His time there influenced him greatly, leaving a lasting impression on his painting. A contemporary and friend of Thomas Mann, Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht, David Schneuer started his career in the 1920’s as a theatrical stage and poster designer in Berlin and Munich, developing his own style influenced by the German art of Kirchner, Grosz and Beckman. His versatility, skill and innovation won him much acclaim. However, in 1932 he was arrested as an artistic dissident and was imprisoned in Dachau. Upon his release in 1933 he fled to Tel Aviv. There, his paintings, as well as his trademarks – posters and public murals – were received with great enthusiasm in the rapidly expanding city. His works have a relaxed, raffish charm that is redolent of Toulouse-Lautrec. The same motifs which he used while designing for Brecht are to be found in his paintings – sharp eroticism refined in subtle colors, sensuous characters and virtuoso drawing enhanced by exuberant humor. Unaffected by the ever-changing world about him, Schneuer continued to develop his expressionist style until his death in November 1988. He painted until the last day of his life. Born: 1905, Galicia, Poland Schneuer is the great artist of the “cabaret” scene. He is a German Expressionist master in the mould of Kirchner and Grosz. Schneuer collaborated with Brecht on theatrical designs and on posters in Munich. He was arrested and sent to Dachau, but he was released and went to Palestine. He never stopped doing his expressionist works of the demi-monde. In 1985 he had a retrospective at the Israel Museum. First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a lay person to a sick or injured casualty until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. While first aid can also be performed on animals, the term generally refers to care of human patients History The instances of recorded first aid were provided by religious knights, such as the Knights Hospitaller, formed in the 11th century, providing care to pilgrims and knights, and training other knights in how to treat common battlefield injuries.  The practice of first aid fell largely in to disuse during the High Middle Ages, and organized societies were not seen again until in 1859 Henry Dunant organized local villagers to help victims of the Battle of Solferino, including the provision of first aid. Four years later, four nations met in Geneva and formed the organization which has grown into the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of “aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field”.  This was followed by the formation of St. John Ambulance in 1877, based on the principles of the Knights Hospitaller, to teach first aid, and numerous other organization joined them, with the term first aid first coined in 1878 as civilian ambulance services spread as a combination of’first treatment’ and’national aid' in large railway centres and mining districts as well as with police forces. First aid training began to spread through the empire through organisations such as St John, often starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways.  Many developments in first aid and many other medical techniques have been driven by wars, such as in the case of the American Civil War, which prompted Clara Barton to organize the American Red Cross.  Today, there are several groups that promote first aid, such as the military and the Scouting movement. New techniques and equipment have helped make todays first aid simple and effective. Aims The key aims of first aid can be summarised in three key points: Preserve life – the overriding aim of all medical care, including first aid, is to save lives Prevent further harm – also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous. Promote recovery – first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury, and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound. First aid training also involves the prevention of initial injury and responder safety, and the treatment phases. Key skills Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously. Particularly, the “ABC”s of first aid, which focus on critical life-saving intervention, must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries. ABC stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. The same mnemonic is used by all emergency health professionals. Attention must first be brought to the airway to ensure it is clear. Obstruction (choking) is a life-threatening emergency. Following evaluation of the airway, a first aid attendant would determine adequacy of breathing and provide rescue breathing if necessary. Assessment of circulation is now not usually carried out for patients who are not breathing, with first aiders now trained to go straight to chest compressions (and thus providing artificial circulation) but pulse checks may be done on less serious patients. Some organizations add a fourth step of “D” for Deadly bleeding or Defibrillation, while others consider this as part of the Circulation step. Variations on techniques to evaluate and maintain the ABCs depend on the skill level of the first aider. Once the ABCs are secured, first aiders can begin additional treatments, as required. Some organizations teach the same order of priority using the “3Bs”: Breathing, Bleeding, and Bones (or “4Bs”: Breathing, Bleeding, Brain, and Bones). While the ABCs and 3Bs are taught to be performed sequentially, certain conditions may require the consideration of two steps simultaneously. This includes the provision of both artificial respiration and chest compressions to someone who is not breathing and has no pulse, and the consideration of cervical spine injuries when ensuring an open airway. Preserving life In order to stay alive, all persons need to have an open airway – a clear passage where air can move in through the mouth or nose through the pharynx and down in to the lungs, without obstruction. Conscious people will maintain their own airway automatically, but those who are unconscious (with a GCS of less than 8) may be unable to maintain a patent airway, as the part of the brain which automatically controls breathing in normal situations may not be functioning. If the patient was breathing, a first aider would normally then place them in the recovery position, with the patient leant over on their side, which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. It also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients, which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents. The airway can also become blocked through a foreign object becoming lodged in the pharynx or larynx, commonly called choking. The first aider will be taught to deal with this through a combination of back slaps and abdominal thrusts. Once the airway has been opened, the first aider would assess to see if the patient is breathing. If there is no breathing, or the patient is not breathing normally, such as agonal breathing, the first aider would undertake what is probably the most recognized first aid procedure – Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, which involves breathing for the patient, and manually massaging the heart to promote blood flow around the body. Promoting recovery The first aider is also likely to be trained in dealing with injuries such as cuts, grazes or bone fracture. They may be able to deal with the situation in its entirety (a small adhesive bandage on a paper cut), or may be required to maintain the condition of something like a broken bone, until the next stage of definitive care (usually an ambulance) arrives. Training Much of first aid is common sense. Basic principles, such as knowing to use an adhesive bandage or applying direct pressure on a bleed, are often acquired passively through life experiences. However, to provide effective, life-saving first aid interventions requires instruction and practical training. This is especially true where it relates to potentially fatal illnesses and injuries, such as those that require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); these procedures may be invasive, and carry a risk of further injury to the patient and the provider. Training is generally provided by attending a course, typically leading to certification. Due to regular changes in procedures and protocols, based on updated clinical knowledge, and to maintain skill, attendance at regular refresher courses or re-certification is often necessary. First aid training is often available through community organizations such as the Red Cross and St. This commercial training is most common for training of employees to perform first aid in their workplace. Many community organizations also provide a commercial service, which complements their community programmes. Australia In Australia, Nationally recognized First Aid certificates may only be issued by Registered training organisations who are accredited on the National Training Information System (NTIS). Most First Aid certificates are issued at one of 3 levels: Level 1 (or Basic First Aid, or Basic Life Support): is a 1-day course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR, bleeding, choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies. Level 2 (Senior First Aid) is a 2 day course that covers all the aspects of training in Level 1, as well as specialized training for treatment of burns, bites, stings, electric shock and poisons. Level 2 reaccreditation is a 1 day course which must be taken every 3 years, but CPR reaccrediation may be required more frequently (typically yearly). Level 3 (Occupational First Aid) is a 4-day course covering advanced first aid, use of oxygen and automated external defibrillators and documentation. It is suitable for workplace First Aiders and those who manage First Aid facilities. Other courses outside these levels are commonly taught, including CPR-only courses, Advanced Resuscitation, Remote Area or Wilderness First Aid, Administering Medications (such as salbutamol or the Epi-Pen) and specialized courses for parents, school teachers, community first responders or hazardous workplace first aiders. CPR Re-accredidation courses are sometimes required yearly, regardless of the length of the overall certification. Canada In Canada, first aid certificates are awarded by one of several national organizations including the Red Cross, the Lifesaving Society and St. Or they can also be issued by sub-national organizations. The terms “Emergency First Aid” and “Standard First Aid” are generic and based on a Health Canada (a federal department of the Government of Canada) review and approval of a training organization’s curriculum / syllabus (training content), standards and other factors. Workplace safety regulations and standards for first aid vary by province depending on occupation. However, as some occupations are governed by federal, not provincial, workplace safety regulations, such as the transportation industry (marine, aviation, rail), trainees need to confirm with their employer as to exactly what specific training and certification standards comply with the applicable regulatory agencies, federal or provincial. Emergency First Aid: is an 8-hour course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR, bleeding, choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies. Standard First Aid: is a 16-hour course that covers the same material as Emergency First Aid and will include training for some, but not all, of the following: breaks; burns; poisons, bites and stings; eye injuries; head and neck injuries; chest injuries; wound care; emergency child birth; and multiple casualty management. Medical First Responder (BTLS – known by different names among different Canadian organizations): is a 40 hour course. It requires Standard First Aid certification as a prerequisite. Candidates are trained in the use of oxygen, automated external defibrillators, airway management, and the use of additional emergency equipment. CPR CPR certification in Canada is broken into several levels. Depending on the level, the lay person will learn the basic one-person CPR and choking procedures for adults, and perhaps children, and infants. Higher-level designations also require two-person CPR to be learned. Depending on provincial laws, trainees may also learn the basics of automated external defibrillation (AED).  Level A is the lowest level of CPR training. Trainees learn how to perform the standard one-rescuer CPR and choking procedures on adults. Level B requires the same procedures as Level A, but trainees learn to perform these maneuvers on children and infants in addition to adults. Level C requires the same maneuvers as Level B, and trainees are also taught how to perform two-person CPR. Level HCP (Health Care Professional) was introduced in Canada in response to new guidelines set by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation.  In addition to the techniques taught in Level C, artificial resuscitation, AED use (to certification standards), and bag-valve-mask use is taught. Anyone with CPR-HCP certification is considered AED certified. Ireland In Ireland, the workplace qualification is the Occupational First Aid Certificate. The Health and Safety Authority issue the standards for first aid at work and hold a register of qualified instructors, examiners and organisations that can provide the course. A FETAC Level 5 certificate is awarded after passing a three day course and is valid for two years from date of issue. Occupational First Aiders are more qualified than Cardiac First Responders (Cardiac First Response and training on the AED is now part of the OFA course) but less qualified than Emergency First Responders but strangely Occupational First Aid is the only one of the three not certified by PHECC. Organisations offering the certificate include, Ireland’s largest first aid organisation, the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps, the St John Ambulance Brigade, and the Irish Red Cross. The Irish Red Cross also provides a Practical First Aid Course aimed at the general public dealing primarily with family members getting injured. Many other (purely commercially run) organisations offer training. The Netherlands In the The Netherlands first aid training and certification for lay persons are provided mostly by specialised (commercial) first aid training companies or voluteers of the “Dutch Red Cross” and the foundations “Het Oranje Kruis” and “LPEV”. They offer a variety of levels in first aid training, from basic CPR to First Responder. Medical first aid must be provided by certified ambulance crews, physicians and in hospitals. United Kingdom In the U. There are two main types of first aid courses offered. An Emergency First Aid at Work course typically lasts one day, and covers the basics, focusing on critical interventions for conditions such as cardiac arrest and severe bleeding, and is usually not formally assessed. A First Aid at Work course is usually a three-day course (two days for a re-qualification) that covers the full spectrum of first aid, and is formally assessed by recognized Health and Safety Executive assessors. Certificates for the First Aid at Work course are issued by the training organization and are valid for a period of three years from the date the delegate passes the course. Other courses offered by training organizations such as St. They are trained in both Military and Civilian First Aid and often utilise their knowledge in aid stricken regions around the world. First Aid is vital on board HM Ships because of the number of people in a small area and the space given to perform their task, it is also vital for the Army and Royal Marines to know basic first aid to help the survival rate of the soldiers when in combat. Specific disciplines There are several types of first aid (and first aider) which require specific additional training. These are usually undertaken to fulfill the demands of the work or activity undertaken. Aquatic/Marine first aid – Usually practiced by professionals such as lifeguards, professional mariners or in diver rescue, and covers the specific problems which may be faced after water-based rescue and/or delayed MedEvac. Battlefield first aid – This takes in to account the specific needs of treating wounded combatants and non-combatants during armed conflict. Hyperbaric first aid – Which may be practiced by SCUBA diving professionals, who need to treat conditions such as the bends. Oxygen first aid – Providing oxygen to casualties who suffer from conditions resulting in hypoxia. Wilderness first aid is the provision of first aid under conditions where the arrival of emergency responders or the evacuation of an injured person may be delayed due to constraints of terrain, weather, and available persons or equipment. It may be necessary to care for an injured person for several hours or days. Symbols For more details on this topic, see Emblems of the Red Cross#Use of the emblems. Although commonly associated with first aid, the symbol of a red cross is an official protective symbol of the Red Cross. According to the Geneva Conventions and other international laws, the use of this and similar symbols is reserved for official agencies of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent, and as a protective emblem for medical personnel and facilities in combat situations. Use by any other person or organization is illegal, and may lead to prosecution. The internationally accepted symbol for first aid is the white cross on a green background shown at the start of the page. Some organizations may make use of the Star of Life, although this is usually reserved for use by ambulance services, or may use symbols such as the Maltese Cross, like the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps and St John Ambulance. Other symbols may also be used. Conditions that often require first aid Also see medical emergency. Altitude sickness, which can begin in susceptible people at altitudes as low as 5,000 feet, can cause potentially fatal swelling of the brain or lungs.  Anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition in which the airway can become constricted and the patient may go into shock. The reaction can be caused by a systemic allergic reaction to allergens such as insect bites or peanuts. Anaphylaxis is initially treated with injection of epinephrine. Battlefield first aid – This protocol refers to treating shrapnel, gunshot wounds, burns, bone fractures, etc. As seen either in the traditional battlefield setting or in an area subject to damage by large scale weaponry, such as a bomb blast or other terrorist activity. Bone fracture, a break in a bone initially treated by stabilizing the fracture with a splint. Burns, which can result in damage to tissues and loss of body fluids through the burn site. Choking, blockage of the airway which can quickly result in death due to lack of oxygen if the patients trachea is not cleared, for example by the Heimlich Maneuver. Cramps in muscles due to lactic acid build up caused either by inadequate oxygenation of muscle or lack of water or salt. Diving disorders, drowning or asphyxiation.  Gender-specific conditions, such as dysmenorrhea and testicular torsion. Heart attack, or inadequate blood flow to the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle. Heat stroke, also known as sunstroke or hyperthermia, which tends to occur during heavy exercise in high humidity, or with inadequate water, though it may occur spontaneously in some chronically ill persons. Sunstroke, especially when the victim has been unconscious, often causes major damage to body systems such as brain, kidney, liver, gastric tract. Unconsciousness for more than two hours usually leads to permanent disability. Emergency treatment involves rapid cooling of the patient. Heat syncope, another stage in the same process as heat stroke, occurs under similar conditions as heat stroke and is not distinguished from the latter by some authorities. Heavy bleeding, treated by applying pressure (manually and later with a pressure bandage) to the wound site and elevating the limb if possible. Hyperglycemia (diabetic coma) and Hypoglycemia (insulin shock). Hypothermia, or Exposure, occurs when a persons core body temperature falls below 33.7°C (92.6°F). First aid for a mildly hypothermic patient includes rewarming, but rewarming a severely hypothermic person could result in a fatal arrhythmia, an irregular heart rhythm. Insect and animal bites and stings. Poisoning, which can occur by injection, inhalation, absorption, or ingestion. Seizures, or a malfunction in the electrical activity in the brain. Three types of seizures include a grand mal (which usually features convulsions as well as temporary respiratory abnormalities, change in skin complexion, etc) and petit mal (which usually features twitching, rapid blinking, and/or fidgeting as well as altered consciousness and temporary respiratory abnormalities). Muscle strains and Sprains, a temporary dislocation of a joint that immediately reduces automatically but may result in ligament damage. Stroke, a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain. Toothache, which can result in severe pain and loss of the tooth but is rarely life threatening, unless over time the infection spreads into the bone of the jaw and starts osteomyelitis. Wounds and bleeding, including lacerations, incisions and abrasions, Gastrointestinal bleeding, avulsions and Sucking chest wounds, treated with an occlusive dressing to let air out but not in. Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America is an American Jewish volunteer women’s organization. Founded in 1912 by Henrietta Szold, it is now one of the largest Jewish organizations, with some 270,000 members around the world, most of them women. HistoryHadassah was established in 1912 in New York City by Henrietta Szold and the Daughters of Zion, a women’s study group. The goal was to promote the Zionist ideal through education, public health initiatives, and the training of nurses in what was then the Palestine region of the Ottoman Empire. Szold served as the first president. Hadassah chapters soon opened in Baltimore, Cleveland, Chicago, and Boston. At the founders’ meeting that coincided with the Jewish holiday of Purim, the group took the name Hadassah, the Hebrew name of the biblical heroine Esther, central figure in the celebration of Purim. Appalled at the dismal state of medicine in Palestine, Szold was the driving spirit behind the establishment of the first medical school in Palestine, as well as the country’s first Tipat Halav mother and child clinics, the first hospital in Tel Aviv and the two Hadassah hospitals in Jerusalem.  Health care, education and youth programs Hadassah founded the Hebrew University of Jerusalem-Hadassah Medical School, the Henrietta Szold Hadassah-Hebrew University School of Nursing and Hadassah College Jerusalem. In 1967, Hadassah took over management of Young Judaea, a Zionist youth movement, and merged it with Junior Hadassah under the Young Judaea name. Hadassah runs the WUJS Arad Institute, in Arad, which brings foreign students to Israel. Hadassah took over the Youth Aliyah program in 1934, which became identified with its founder Henrietta Szold, rescuing tens of thousands of children from the Holocaust and subsequently becoming involved in rescue of Jewish youth around the world and their integration in Israeli society. Hadassah is a major supporter and partner of the Jewish National Fund, which plants trees and implements other land reclamation programs in Israel. Hadassah also advocates for progressive issues of importance to women and to the American Jewish community, including First Amendment issues, separation of church and state, support for Israel, and other causes. Hadassah supports The Hadassah Medical Organization (HMO), consisting of two hospital complexes at Ein Kerem and Mount Scopus in Jerusalem. It has initiated and contributed to numerous medical aid projects in Israel and around the world, and built several hospitals and other facilities in Israel that were eventually turned over to state and municipal authorities. In the United States, Hadassah promotes health education, social action and advocacy, volunteerism, Jewish education and research, and connections with Israel. Hadassah has announced plans to establish Israel’s first military medical school, scheduled to open in October 2009 as part of the Hebrew University School of Medicine. Leadership In July 2007, the organization inaugurated its 24th national president, Nancy K. Falchuk of Newton, Massachusetts.  Apart from health and education, Falchuk says Hadassah is active in the fight against anti-Semitism. Promoting Israel’s security and encouraging stem-cell research are other goals of the organization.  Awards In 2005, the two Jerusalem hospitals of the Hadassah Medical Organization were nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. The nomination asserted three areas in which HMO has promoted peace in Western Asia. : Maintaining equal treatment for all regardless of religion, ethnicity and nationality Setting an example of cooperation and coexistence by maintaining a mixed staff of people of all faiths Initiatives to create bridges for peace, even during periods of active conflict between Israel and one or more of its neighbors Hadassah Hospital Main article: Hadassah Medical Center Shortly after its foundation in 1912, Hadassah established a nursing station in Jerusalem. Following World War I, it sent doctors and nurses to found medical clinics in Palestine, eventually building the foremost hospital in Western Asia on Mount Scopus in East Jerusalem in 1939. During the Arab siege of 1948, the hospital and the adjacent Hebrew University held out against repeated attacks. On April 13, 1948 the Hadassah medical convoy massacre took place: A convoy of doctors, nurses and patients, on its way to the hospital under a flag of truce, was attacked by local Arabs. Nearby British troops did not intervene. About 80 people, mostly medical personnel, were murdered including Haim Yasky, the Director General of the Hadassah Medical Organization. The hospital was evacauted shortly thereafter, and five emergency hospitals were established at temporary locations throughout Jerusalem. The cease fire of 1949 left Hadassah Hospital and the university enclave cut off from the Israeli sector of the city. A new hospital was built in Ein Kerem (Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital) on the west side of the city, and opened its doors in 1960. The original hospital was retaken in the Six Day War and was reopened in 1975, serving the Arabs of East Jerusalem and the West Bank. International programs Hadassah International is a network of dedicated volunteers, men and women of all faiths and nationalities, founded on the principle that advancement and cooperation in medicine and science transcend politics, religion, and national boundaries. Established in 1984, Hadassah International currently spans the five continents of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australasia. Its mission is to: Enhance the image of Israel through the work of the Hadassah Medical Organization (HMO). Provide support for HMO so that it remains an academic center of excellence for healing, teaching, and research. Serve as a bridge to nations through medicine. In 1988, at the invitation of United States Agency for International Development (USAID), HMO medical staff members helped to plan, construct and open a hospital in Kinshasa, Zaire. In Kenya, Haddassah surgeons cured blindness in hundreds of people in a two week program. Young Hadassah International is Hadassah International’s branch for 18-35 year-olds, active in 10 countries. Magazine The organization publishes Hadassah, a magazine. In 1993, it was nominated for a National Magazine Award. A paramedic is a medical professional, usually working as part of the emergency medical services provision in a given area. Their primary role is to provide pre-hospital advanced medical and trauma care, followed where appropriate by transfer to definitive care.  Although most paramedics are field based in ambulances or response cars, some may undertake hospital based roles, such as the treatment of minor injuries. Although the term paramedic is widely used to describe ambulance personnel of all grades and regardless of qualification or training level,  in many countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom, the use of the word paramedic is restricted by law, and the person claiming the title must have passed a specific set of examinations and clinical placements, and hold a valid registration, certification, or license with a governing body.  This is in line with the protection often seen for other healthcare professions such as doctors or nurses. Other countries do not have the legal restrictions on the use of paramedic as a job title, and it is legitimately used to refer to all ambulance crew members. This is the case in countries such as Canada and South Africa, with training grades then distinguished by the terms such as primary, intermediate or advanced e. Etymology The term paramedic comes from para- (auxiliary) and medical, and means “related to medicine in an auxiliary capacity”.  The military term “paramedic”, meaning “parachuting medical corpsmen”, came later. History of paramedicine Early history Throughout the evolution of paramedicine, there has been an ongoing association with military conflict. One of the first indications of a formal process for managing injured people dates from the Imperial Legions of Rome, where aging Centurions, no longer able to fight, were tasked with organizing the removal of the wounded from the battlefield and providing some form of care. Such individuals, although not physicians, were probably among the world’s earliest surgeons, suturing wounds, completing amputations, and not through training, but by default. This trend would continue throughout the Crusades, with the Knights H. Ospitallers of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, known throughout the Commonwealth of Nations today as St. John Ambulance, filling a similar function. The first vehicle that was specifically designed as an ambulance was created during the Napoleonic War, and called the ambulance volante. Created by Napoleon’s Chief Surgeon, Baron Dominique Jean Larrey, this new horse-drawn contrivance was intended to transport the wounded rapidly to surgeons, waiting at the rear. Such vehicles were seen by the military as a general resource, and care of the wounded was not given much priority; it was not uncommon for such vehicles to be tasked with carrying fresh ammunition to the battlefront, before they transported the wounded back. The basic design of such vehicles remained unchanged for nearly 100 years. Early civilian ambulance services While communities had organized to deal with the care and transportation of the sick and dying as far back as the plague in London, England (1598, 1665), such arrangements were typically temporary. In time, however, such arrangements began to formalize and become permanent. During the American Civil War, Jonathan Letterman had devised a system of forward first aid stations at the regimental level, where principles of triage were first instituted. Letterman, with the rank of major, served as the medical director of the Army of the Potomac. He established mobile field hospitals to be located at division and corps headquarters. The United States Army had reeled from inefficient treatment of casualties, in part because of the adoption of new firearm technology such as breech-loading rifles and Minié ball systems. Letterman established mobile field hospitals to be located at division and corps headquarters. This was all connected by an efficient ambulance corps, established by Letterman in August 1862, under the control of medical staff instead of the Quartermaster Department. Letterman also arranged an efficient system for the distribution of medical supplies. His system was adopted by other Union armies and was eventually officially established as the medical procedure for the entirety of the United States’ armies by an Act of Congress in March 1864. Following the American Civil War, some veterans began to attempt to apply what had they had seen on the battlefield to their own communities, through the creation of volunteer life-saving squads and ambulance corps. This translation to civilian use did not occur in the same way everywhere; in Britain, early civilian ambulances were often operated by the local hospital or the police, while in some parts of Canada, it was common for the local undertaker (having the only transport in town in which one could lie down) to operate both the local furniture store (making coffins as a sideline) and the local ambulance service. In larger centers in various countries, such services might fall to the local Health Department, the Police, the Fire Department, or some combination of all of the above. Once again, the civilian model followed the lead of the military; although there were a handful of motorized ambulances just prior to the First World War (19141918), the concept of motorized ambulances was proven first on the battlefield, and spread rapidly to civilian systems immediately following the war. There is some debate as to when the first formal training of “ambulance attendants” began. The generally accepted belief is that this occurred in the United States, at Roanoke, Virginia, with the Roanoke Life Saving and First Aid Crew, under Julian Stanley Wise, in 1928. While this may have been true of the U. Canadian records indicate the members of the Toronto Police Ambulance Service received a mandatory five days of training, conducted by St. John, as early as 1889 , and well developed printed manuals, clearly beyond the scope of simple first aid, were present in England even earlier. In terms of advanced skills, it is known that, once again, the military led the way. Korea also marked the first widespread use of helicopters to evacuate the wounded from forward positions to medical units, coining the phrase’medevac’. These innovations would not find their way into the civilian sphere for nearly twenty more years. Pre-hospital medicine By the early 1960s experiments in improving care had begun in some civilian centres. The first such experiment involved the provision of pre-hospital cardiac care by physicians in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1966 . This was repeated in Toronto, Canada in 1968, using a single ambulance called Cardiac One, staffed by a regular ambulance crew, plus a hospital intern, who was tasked with performing the advanced procedures. While both of these experiments had certain levels of success, technology had not yet reached the required level the Toronto’portable’ defibrillator/heart monitor was powered by lead-acid car batteries and weighed nearly 100 lbs. The required telemetry and miniaturization technologies already existed in the military, and particularly in the space program, but it would take several more years before they found their way to civilian applications. In North America, physicians were judged to be too expensive to be used in the pre-hospital setting, although such initiatives were implemented, and in some cases still operate, in the United Kingdom, Europe, and Latin America. Around 1966 in a published report entitled “Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society”, (known in EMS trade as the White Paper) medical researchers began to reveal, to their astonishment, that soldiers who were seriously wounded on the battlefields of Vietnam had a better survival rate than those individuals who were seriously injured in motor vehicle accidents on California freeways. Early research attributed these differences in outcome to a number of factors, including comprehensive trauma care, rapid transport to designated trauma facilities, and a new type of medical corpsman, one who was trained to perform certain critical advanced medical procedures such as fluid replacement and airway management, which allowed the victim to survive the journey to definitive care. As a result, a series of grand experiments began in the United States. Almost simultaneously, and completely independent from one another, experimental programs began in three U. Centers; Miami, Florida, Seattle, Washington, and Los Angeles, California, the first of these to go from being an experiment, to being a working unit, was in Los Angeles, with the passage of the Wedsworth-Townsend Act, other states would soon push their own Paramedic bills through, and soon, every fire department in every major city in the country had their own paramedic squads. Each was aimed at determining the effectiveness of using firefighters to perform many of these same advanced medical skills in the pre-hospital setting in the civilian world. Many in the senior administration of the Fire Departments were initially quite opposed to this concept of’firemen giving needles’, and actively resisted and attempted to cancel pilot programs more than once. The public discovers paramedicine In a curious example of’life imitating art’, television producer Robert A. Cinader, working for producer Jack Webb of Dragnet and Adam-12 fame, happened to be in Los Angeles’ UCLA Harbor Medical Center, doing background research for a proposed new TV show about doctors, when he happened to encounter these’firemen who spoke like doctors and worked with them’. This novel idea would eventually evolve into the Emergency! Television series, which ran from 1972 to 1977, portraying the exploits of a new group called’paramedics’. The show captured the imagination of emergency services personnel, the medical community, and the general public. When the show first aired in 1972, there were exactly six paramedic units operating in three pilot programs in the whole of the United States. No one had ever heard the term’paramedic'; indeed, it is reported that one of the show’s actors was initially concerned that the’para’ part of the term might involve jumping out of airplanes. By the time the program ended production in 1977, there were paramedics operating in every state. The show’s technical advisor was a pioneer of paramedicine, James O. Page, then a Battalion Chief responsible for the paramedic program, but who would go on to help establish other paramedic programs in the U. And to become the founding publisher of the Journal of Emergency Medical Services (JEMS). Evolution and growth Throughout the 1970s and 80s, the field continued to evolve, although in large measure, on a local level. In the broader scheme of things the term’ambulance service’ was replaced by’emergency medical service’ in order to reflect the change from a transportation system to a system which provided actual medical care. The training, knowledge base, and skill sets of both Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians (both competed for the job title, and’EMT-Paramedic’ was a common compromise) were typically determined by what local medical directors were comfortable with, what it was felt that the community needed, and what could actually be afforded. There were also tremendous local differences in the amount and type of training required, and how it would be provided. This ranged from in service training in local systems, through community colleges, and ultimately even to universities. The community college training model remains the most common, although university-based paramedic education models continue to evolve. These variations in both educational approaches and standards led to tremendous differences from one location to another, and at its worst, created a situation in which a group of people with 120 hours of training, and another group (in another jurisdiction) with university degrees, were both calling themselves’paramedics’, there were some efforts made to resolve these discrepancies. The National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) along with National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) attempted to create a national standard by means of a common licensing examination, but to this day, this has never been universally accepted by U. States, and issues of licensing reciprocity for paramedics continue, although if a EMT obtains certification through NREMT (NREMT-P, NREMT-I, NREMT-B), this is accepted by 40 of the 50 states in the United States. This confusion was further complicated by the introduction of complex systems of gradation of certification, reflecting levels of training and skill, but these too were, for the most part, purely local. The only truly common trend that would evolve was the relatively universal acceptance of the term’Emergency Medical Technician’ being used to denote a lower lever of training and skill than a’Paramedic’. In the UK, Paramedics are being developed further, so a basic qualification of a Paramedic is a foundation degree or diploma at university. Paramedics in the UK can now develop further to “Emergency Care Practitioner” and “Critical Care Practioners”, providing extra clinical skills to their patients. During the evolution of paramedicine, a great deal of both curriculum and skill set was in a state of constant flux. Permissible skills evolved in many cases at the local level, and were based upon the preferences of physician advisers and medical directors. Treatments would go in and out of fashion, and sometimes, back in again. The use of certain drugs, Bretylium for example, illustrate this. In some respects, the development seemed almost faddish. Technologies also evolved and changed, and as medical equipment manufacturers quickly learned, the pre-hospital environment was not the same as the hospital environment; equipment standards which worked fine in hospitals could not cope well with the less controlled pre-hospital environment. Physicians began to take more interest in paramedics from a research perspective as well. By about 1990, most of the’trendiness’ in pre-hospital emergency care had begun to disappear, and was replaced by outcome-based research; the gold standard for the rest of medicine. This research began to drive the evolution of the practice of both paramedics and the emergency physicians who oversaw their work; changes to procedures and protocols began to occur only after significant outcome-based research demonstrated their need. Such changes affected everything from simple procedures, such as CPR, to changes in drug protocols. As the profession of paramedicine grew, some of its members actually went on to become not just research participants, but researchers in their own right, with their own projects and journal publications. Changes in procedures also included the manner in which the work of paramedics was overseen and managed. In the earliest days of the field, medical control and oversight was direct and immediate, with paramedics calling into a local hospital and receiving orders for every individual procedure or drug. This still occurs in some jurisdictions, but is becoming very rare. As physicians began to build a bond of trust with paramedics, and experience in working with them, their confidence levels also rose. Increasingly, in many jurisdictions day to day operations moved from direct and immediate medical control to pre-written protocols or’standing orders’, with the paramedic typically only calling in for direction after the options in the standing orders had been exhausted. Medical oversight became driven more by chart review or rounds, than by step by step control during each call. Evolution in other jurisdictions In other places, the evolution of paramedicine occurred somewhat differently. In Canada, for example, there was an early, but unsuccessful attempt to introduce paramedicine. In 1972, a pilot paramedic training program occurred at Queen’s University, located in Kingston, Ontario. The program, intended to upgrade the mandatory 160 hours of training then required for’ambulance attendants’, was found to be too costly and premature. While the program operated for two years and produced a number of graduates, it would be more than a decade before the legislative authority for them to practice was put into place. The program then moved in another direction, providing 1,400 hours of training at the community college level, prior to commencing employment. This change was made mandatory in 1977, with formal certification examinations being introduced for the first time in 1978. Similar, but not identical, programs occurred at roughly the same time in the Province of Alberta, and in British Columbia, through its Justice Institute. Other Canadian provinces gradually followed, but with their own education and certification requirements. Advanced Care Paramedics were not introduced until 1984, when Toronto trained its first group internally, and the process continued to spread across the country. The current model in Ontario calls for a two year community college based program, including both hospital and field clinical components, prior to designation as a Primary Care Paramedic, although this is gradually evolving in the direction of a university degree-based program. Some services, such as Toronto EMS, continue to train paramedics internally (indeed, Toronto EMS is accredited in its own right by the Canadian Medical Association as an Advanced Care Paramedic training academy). In the United Kingdom, ambulance services became largely municipal services, with some exceptions, shortly after the end of World War Two. Training was frequently conducted internally, although national levels of coordination led to better standardization of staff training. All public ambulance services are currently operated by regional entities, most often’trusts’, under the authority of the National Health Service. Tremendous standardization of training and permitted skills has also occurred. The UK model utilizes, two levels of ambulance staff. The first of these is’Ambulance Technician’. This role is not a paramedic, but more closely corresponds to the EMT role in the United States. Most services train these individuals internally, using a common curriculum. The second role is that of’Paramedic’. These are practitioners of advanced life support skills, similar to U. Initially, many of these individuals were trained internally by the services that employed them, with the step to Paramedic being a logical career path progression for an experienced Ambulance Technician. Increasingly, this trend has moved toward training in the University system, with the entry level for Paramedics being an Honours Bachelor of Science degree in Pre-Hospital or Paramedic Care. Some British Paramedics have been further elevated, into the role of Paramedic Practitioner, a role that practices independently in the pre-hospital environment, in a capacity similar to that of a nurse practitioner, but with more of an acute care orientation. Some Paramedic Practitioners in the U. The growth of a new profession Today, the field of para medicine continues to grow and evolve into a formal profession in its own right, complete with its own standards and body of knowledge. What began as a concept of simple’technicians’ with a couple of weeks of training, performing procedures that they didn’t fully understand, has evolved into a career that in many cases U. South Africa, Australia and increasingly the U. And Canada, requires a university education, and which is, in some locations actually evolving into a second tier medical practitioner. In many places, the practice of paramedics began as an extension of the supervising physician’s license to practice medicine. As such, they were absolutely subject to every condition that the physician placed on their practice. More recently, however, paramedics in both the U. And some Canadian provinces have been granted the legal status of self-regulated health professions. When this occurs, the individual paramedics are certified and licensed by a College of Para medicine, created by legislation but run by the paramedics themselves. This body sets standards, conducts licensing exams, deals with complaints regarding individual practitioners, and consults the government with respect to legislation, policy, and regulations. Paramedics are governing and regulating themselves; the true measure of a profession. Paramedics are subject to regulation by individual states, and the degree and type of regulation, as well as paramedic participation in that process, varies from state to state. Places of work Paramedics are employed by a variety of different organizations, and the services provided by paramedics may occur under differing organizational structures, depending on the part of the world. In the United States, a paramedic can be employed by government agencies such as the Parks Service or the Coast Guard. They may also be employed as part of a public hospital system; in some cases working inside the hospital. They are most commonly employed as part of a municipal Emergency Medical Service, which may be free-standing “Third Service” (municipal department operating independently of other emergency services) option, or a part of some other public safety agency, such as a fire, police, or the health department. Paramedics may also be employed by private companies, some of which may have contractual emergency service provision commitments to local municipalities, corporations, mines, air ambulances, or racetracks or entertainment venues. Paramedics may also work on a volunteer basis, receiving no monetary compensation for their services i. Volunteer Rescue Squad / Volunteer Fire Department and community response units. Another newly emerging field in the world of Emergency Medical Service is the role of Tactical Medics. Whose responsibility lies with providing care to injured and wounded SWAT officers in austere and extremely hazardous environments while under enemy fire. Highly specialized training is required to be known as an Emergency Medical Technician – Tactical. This career field is open to both basic and advanced level providers. In the UK, paramedics are typically employed by ambulance services, as a part of the National Health Service Trust system. An NHS Trust is, in effect, a type of public sector corporation, and most NHS health services, including both primary care and hospitals, are organized in this fashion. Service organization occurs regionally, with Ambulance Service Trusts typically covering several local Counties, and with 12 such Trusts currently providing coverage for the entire country. Ambulance Service in Wales operates on a similar system, while the Scottish Ambulance Service and Northern Ireland Ambulance Service are single entities provided by the Health Departments of their respective federal governments. Additional coverage, particularly for special events, may be provided by Voluntary Ambulance Services, including the British Red Cross and St. John Ambulance, or by private companies, but neither of these typically uses fully qualified paramedics. In Canada, paramedics are employed almost exclusively by publicly operated EMS systems. The manner in which such systems are organized and funded varies somewhat from province to province. The British Columbia Ambulance Service is organized as a branch of the provincial government, with that government providing services directly through a branch of the Ministry of Health. In Ontario, the provision of EMS has been allocated to Upper-tier municipalities like U. Each of these provides its own EMS, and is free to operate the service directly as third service or, in rare cases, as a branch of the fire department, or to contract those services to a private business entity or a local hospital. In all of these cases, the provincial government accredits the services, and provides operating standards and some funding. In the Maritime Provinces the provincial governments have entered into long term contractual arrangements with a single private company for the operation of their EMS systems. Other Canadian provinces use still other approaches to the provision of service and the operating environment in which paramedics will work. Public ambulance services in Australia are exclusively third-service option. These services are operated directly by each of the states and territories. A separate service is provided for the Australian Capital Territory. Australian paramedics are not typically employed in hospitals or the fire brigade. While there are a handful of private ambulance companies operating in Australia, these do not typically provide what would normally be described as’paramedic’ levels of service. In some centers, some paramedics have begun to specialize their practice. This specialization frequently is to some degree tied to the environment in which the paramedic will work. One of the earliest examples of this involved aviation medicine, and the use of helicopters. Another was the transfer of critical care patients between facilities. While some jurisdictions still use physicians, nurses and technicians for this purpose, increasingly, this role falls to specially-trained, very senior and experienced paramedics, who perform this role as their primary job function. Other areas of specialization include such roles as tactical paramedics working in police tactical units, marine paramedics, hazardous materials (Hazmat) teams, and Heavy Urban Search and Rescue. Still others work in physical isolation, on offshore oil platforms, oil and mineral exploration teams, and in the military. In some cases, one can even find paramedics working on cruise ships. A new and evolving role for paramedics involves the expansion of their practice into the provision of relatively simple primary health care and assessment services. The Magen David Adom Hebrew: , abbr. MDA or Mada is Israel’s national emergency medical, disaster, ambulance and blood bank service. The name means “Red Star of David” (literally: “Red Shield of David”). Since June 2006, Magen David Adom has been officially recognized by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) as the national aid society of the state of Israel under the Geneva Conventions, and a member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies History The Magen David Adom organization was formed by nurse Karen Tenenbaum in 1930 as a volunteer association with a single branch in Tel Aviv. After opening branches in Jerusalem and Haifa, it was extended nation-wide five years later, providing medical support to the public including not only Jews, but Arabs (Muslim, Druze, and Christian). On 12 July 1950, the Knesset passed a law making MDA’s status as Israel’s national emergency service official; To carry out the functions of a national society, to be for this purpose an auxiliary service of the Medical Service of the Israeli Defense Forces in time of war and to prepare for this in time of peace; To maintain general first aid services; To maintain a storage service of blood, plasma and their by-products; Instruction in first aid and pre-hospital emergency medicine; Maintaining a volunteer infrastructure and training them in first aid, basic and advanced life support including Mobile Intensive Care Units; Transportation of patients, women in labor, and evacuation of those wounded and killed in road accidents; Transportation of doctors, nurses and medical auxiliary forces. Volunteers Like many organisations in Israel, Magen David Adom is mainly staffed by volunteers, and has over 10,000 people volunteering over one million hours per year. The minimum age to join Magen David Adom’s basic first aid course and become a volunteer is 15.  Since 2001, international volunteers aged 18 and over have the option to come to Israel for a two-month Yochai Porat International Volunteer Program. The program is named after its founder and first coordinator, who was killed by a sniper on March 3, 2002 while serving reserve duty as a combat medic in the Israel Defense Forces. All volunteers follow a 60-hour course that covers a wide range of topics ranging from common medical conditions and trauma situations to mass casualty events. Those who pass the course are then dispatched throughout the country and work with local volunteers in ambulances to provide initial medical care.  While the program was originally financially supported by the Jewish Agency for Israel, it has recently been taken over by the Israel Experience organization, which also offers programs for Jewish youths on Birthright Israel trips. Current status Though MDA currently staffs approximately 1,200 emergency medical technicians, paramedics and emergency physicians, it still relies heavily on over 10,000 volunteers who serve in both operational and administrative capacities. MDA headquarters and its blood bank are located at the Tel HaShomer complex in the center of the country. The organization operates 95 stations over the country, with a fleet of over 700 ambulances nationwide. Among them: mobile intensive care units (MICU), special ambulances equipped for mass casualty events, and armored ambulances. Most of the fleet is made up of regular size vans providing Basic Life Support. These are called “Lavan” (which in Hebrew means “White”) due to their external aspect and to differentiate them from the MICU which have orange stripes on the sides. They are manned by EMTs who generally have ranks equivalent to Basic and Intermediate EMTs in the US. In Israel, they are called “Ma’ar” (first responders), “Chovesh” (EMT-B+) and “Chovesh Bachir” (EMT-I). MICUs similar to the US Type II units and manned by paramedics and physicians respond only to the most medically serious cases. They are called Natan (if a physician is on board) or Atan (if it is only staffed by paramedics and EMTs). Major stations include special units (called “Taaran”) for responding to mass casualty events like natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Air ambulance service is provided by Israeli Air Force 669 unit with MEDEVAC helicopters, however MDA imported four MBB Bo 105s from Germany and plans to employ them to improve response times in peripheral areas. Previous attempts to integrate independent helicopter service in the 1970s were unsuccessful due to high cost.  Unique among civilian emergency medical services due to its role as national aid society according to the Geneva Conventions, MDA can become an auxiliary arm of the Israel Defense Forces during times of war. Membership in Red Cross From its creation until 2006, Magen David Adom had been denied membership in the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement since it has refused to replace its red Star of David emblem with a pre-approved symbol. The reason for the denial of membership was concerns about symbol proliferation; at the same 1929 conference which granted use of the Red Crescent and Red Lion and Sun, a limitation was placed on acceptance of any further emblems. The “Red Star of David” symbol was not submitted to the ICRC until 1931. Similar concerns of India, Ceylon and the former Soviet Union regarding the use of non-Hindu and seemingly religious symbols were also dismissed by the ICRC, but their national bodies chose to adopt the Red Cross as their official emblems in order to gain entry. The Red Cross the inverse of the Swiss flag, the country of origin of the founder of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is not intended as a religious symbol, but is often perceived as such.  Critics of the ICRC assert discrimination since Turkey and Egypt were granted membership in 1929 while using the Islamic Red Crescent as their emblem, citing the same concerns about the cross. In her March 2000 letter to the International Herald Tribune, Dr. Bernadine Healy, then president of the American Red Cross, wrote: The international committee’s feared proliferation of symbols is a pitiful fig leaf, used for decades as the reason for excluding the Magen David Adom the Shield (or Star) of David. In protest, the American Red Cross withheld millions in administrative funding to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) since May 2000. In addition, there are bilateral cooperation agreements between MDA and a number of national Red Cross societies. On December 7, 2005, a diplomatic conference of states party to the Geneva Conventions adopted a third additional protocol, thereby introducing a new protective emblem, dubbed the Red Crystal. ” This “third protocol emblem is hailed as a truly universal emblem free of religious, ethnic, or political connotation. The new symbol is a red square frame tilted at a 45 degree angle. According to the rules of the third additional protocol, MDA can continue to use the Red Star of David as its sole emblem for indicative purposes within Israel. For indicative use in abroad missions, MDA can, depending on the specific situation in the host country, either incorporate the Red Star of David inside the Red Crystal or use the Red Crystal alone. On June 22, 2006, MDA was recognised by the ICRC and admitted as a full member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies,  following adoption of the Red Crystal symbol in the statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement on the same level as the Red Cross and Red Crescent symbols.  Tracing service Magen David Adom’s tracing service was established to assist in locating relatives lost in the Holocaust. In 20002007, the service handled 5,000 applications.  Criticisms The Magen David Adom blood drive came under criticism after reports that blood from Ethiopian donors had been discarded. Magen David Adom spokesman Yeruham Mendola responded to the claims by saying: The guidelines set by the Ministry of Health determines that anyone who was born, or who lived for over a year since 1977 in central Africa, southeast Asia or the Caribbean islands, or has spent over six months in Britain, or was in France, Ireland or Portugal for over 10 years can choose not to donate blood, or donate blood, which is then marked, and know that it will not be used for transfusions. In 2006, a protest of some 10,000 Ethiopians outside the Prime Minister’s office led to violent clashes with the police. Shimon Peres, serving as Vice Prime Minister in the cabinet of Ehud Olmert, apologized to the Ethiopian Jewish community for this policy. The item “1942 Palestine DAVID SCHNEUER Jewish ART BOOK FIRST AID Israel HEBREW Judaica VR” is in sale since Saturday, July 3, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Religion & Spirituality\Judaism\Books”. The seller is “judaica-bookstore” and is located in TEL AVIV. This item can be shipped worldwide.
- Country of Manufacture: Israel
- Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel
- Religion: Judaism